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"Radiosensitisers and Radioprotectors"

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Mice in vivo
Strain Type of tissue/cell &/or
Type of assay
Adult Swiss albino mice Effect on levels of plasma proteins and albumin of peripheral blood[1]
Effect on plasma protein level[2]
Effect on stem cells[3]
Effect on goblet cells in jejunum[4]
Effect on early post-irradiation cell damage and recovery after sublethal exposure [5]
Effect on percentage of binucleate cells, abnormal nuclei and recovery of hepatic damage[6]
Effect on intestinal villi[7]
Effect on liver cells[8]
Female Swiss albino mice Effect of Liposome encapsulation of MPG on its radioprotective ability and viabilities of spleen and bone marrow cells[9].
Effect on follicular depletion in female mice[10]and also on ovaries of female mice at different postnatal ages[11]
Adult virgin Female Swiss albino mice Effect on ovarian follicles[12]
Pregnant Swiss albino mice Effect on parturition[13]
Effect on weight of litters[14]
Response of liver of litters irradiated in utero to MPG treatment[15]
Effect on erythrocytes counts in litters[16]
Effect on embryonic survival and radiation induced uterine involution[17].
Male Swiss albino mice Effect in modifying gonadal response[18]
Effect on intestinal crypt cells after Cobalt-60 irradiation[19]
Effect on mouse testes(disappearance of male germ cells and regeneration of seminiferous epithelium)[20].
Effect on thymus[21].
Effect on chromosomal injury of bone marrow[22].
Effect on peripheral blood erythrocytes[23].
Effect on protein contents of ileum[24].
Effect on survival of bone marrow lymphocytes[25].
Young adult Swiss albino mice Effect on following end points-delaying of radiation sickness, mean survival time, loss of weight[26].
Mice Effect on 59Fe uptake depression in bone marrow induced by gamma irradiation [27].
Effect on fetal testes weight and spermatid counts[28].
Effect on weight of litters of mice irradiated in utero[29].
Effect on spleen weight and spleen stem cells[30].
Effect of Meprin S-derivatives on mice survival[31].
Effect on spermatocytes[32].
Effect on thyroid function[33].
Effect on short-term survival[34].
Effect on percentage of 30-day survival[35].
Male dd/YF mice Effect on mice survival[36].


1. Nandchahal KK, Routh J, Mathur S, Bhartiya HC, Radiation response of plasma protein and albumin of peripheral blood and its modification by MPG (2-Mercaptopropionylglycine) in mice, Strahlenther Onkol. 1990 Apr; 166(4):306-9.
2. Kumar S, Uma Devi P., Radioresponse of peripheral blood and its modification by MPG (2 mercaptopropionylglycine) in mice IV total plasma protein, Strahlentherapie. 1983; 159(8):502-4.
3. Saini MR, Devi PU., Radiation protection of pronormoblasts and normoblasts by 2 mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG), Experientia. 1980; 36(4):448-9.
4. Saharan BR, Saini MR, Devi PU, MPG protection and goblet cell kinetics in mouse jejunum, Strahlentherapie. 1978; 154(1):60-2.
5. Devi PU, Surana M., Chemical modification of adrenal response to external whole body irradiation in mice, Acta Radiol Oncol. 1985; 24(5):427-31.
6. Gupta ML, Singh RP, Uma Devi P, Protection of mouse liver by 2-mercaptopropionylglycine against beta radiations from injected tritiated water, J Radiat Res. 1979 Dec;20(4):329-37.
7. Devi PU, Protection of Mouse Intestine against Gamma Irradiation by 2-Mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG), J. Radiat. Res. 1977, 18, 160-163.
8. Saini MR, Saharan BR, Bhartiya HC, Devi PU, Radiation protection of mouse liver by 2-mercaptopropionylglycine, J Radiat Res. 1977;18(3):206-10.
9. Sharan RN, Alam A, Chakraborty S, Saikia JR, Srivastava PN, 2-Mercaptopropionylglycine affords enhanced radioprotection after a liposome encapsulation, J Radiat Res. 1995;36(1):31-7.
10. Mathur S, Bhartiya HC, Routh J, Nandchahal, Depletion of ovarian oocytes in sublethally exposed mice to gamma radiation and its modification by 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG), Indian J Exp Biol. 1991;29(1):83-5.
11 Mathur S, Nandchahal K, Bhartiya HC., Radioprotection by MPG of mice ovaries exposed to sublethal gamma radiation doses at different postnatal ages, Acta Oncol. 1991; 30(8):981-3.
12. Kumar A, Devi PU, Chemoprotection of ovarian follicles of mice against gamma irradiation by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine), J Radiat Res. 1982; 23(3):306-12.
13. Dev PK, Pareek BP, Goyal PK, Mehta G, Gupta SM., Effects of prenatal gamma-radiation on the development of mice and its modification by 2-mercaptopropionylglycine, Acta Anat (Basel). 1983; 116(4):339-45.
14. Dev PK, Pareek BP, Gupta SM, Goyal PK, Mehta G, 2-Mercaptopropionylglycine protection against growth-inhibiting effects in utero irradiated mice, Acta Anat (Basel). 1982; 112(3):249-53.
15. Pareek BP, Mehta G, Bhartiya HC, Dev PK, Response of developing mouse liver irradiated in utero and its modification by 2-mercaptopropionylglycine, Acta Radiol Oncol. 1983; 22(1):55-60.
16. Goyal PK, Kumar S, Dev PK., Radioresponse of postnatal erythrocytes and its modification by MPG (2mercaptopropionylglycine) in mice exposed to gamma radiation in utero, Strahlentherapie, 1982; 158(12):731-3.
17. Mathur SP, Patni N, Popli MK, Dev PK., Partial prevention of tritium induced uterine involution in mice by 2mercaptopropionylglycine, Acta Radiol Oncol. 1986; 25(1):77-80.
18. Routh J, Bhartiya HC, Nandchahal KK, Mathur S, Efficacy of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG): a radioprotector in modifying the gonadal response of whole body irradiated male Swiss albino mice, Radiobiol Radiother (Berl). 1990; 31(3):279-83.
19. Devi PU, Saini MR, Saharan BR and Bhartiya HC, Radioprotective Effect of 2-Mercaptopropionyl glycine on the Intestinal Crypt of Swiss Albino Mice after Cobalt-60 irradiation, Radiation Research 1979,80, 214-220.
20. Saharan BR, Devi PU., Radiation protection of mouse testes with 2-mercaptopropionylglycine, J Radiat Res. 1977; 18(4):308-16.
21. Devi PU and Saini MR, Protection of Mouse Thymus against Cobalt-60 Radiation by 2-Mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG), J. Radiat. Res. 1977, 18, 211-224.
22. Gupta R. and Devi UP, Protection against radiation induced chromosome injury by sulfhydryl compounds, Acta Radiol Oncol., 1985; 24(5):419-25.
23. Devi PU, Kumar S, Radioresponse of peripheal blood and its modification by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine) in mice. I. Erythrocytes, Strahlentherapie. 1981; 157(1):63-5.
24. Mathur VB, Radioprotective effect of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine on the protein contents of mouse ileum, Current Science 1985; 54(18):929-930.
25. Saini MR, Devi PU, Yadav SS, Radiation protection of bone marrow lymphocytes by 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG), Experientia. 1978 Dec 15; 34(12):1627-8.
26. Saharan BR, Saini MR, Uma Devi P, MPG protection against radiation sickness and weight loss and its correlation with mortality of mice after whole-body gamma-irradiation, Strahlentherapie. 1981; 157(2):138-40.
27. Ghose A, Basu SK, Ganguly SK, Bhatnagar A, Mathur M., Role of some radioprotectors on 59Fe uptake in bone marrow after whole-body gamma irradiation to mice, Strahlentherapie. 1983; 159(12):772-4.
28. Goyal PK, Dev PK., Radioresponse of fetal testes of mice and its modification by MPG (2mercaptopropionylglycine), Strahlentherapie. 1983; 159(4):239-41.
29. Dev PK, Gupta SM, Goyal PK, Mehta G, Pareek BP., Radioprotective effect of MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine) on the postnatal growth of mice irradiated in utero, Strahlentherapie. 1981; 157(8):553-5.
30. Saini MR, Devi PU, Modification of radiation-induced spleen weight changes in mice by 2mercaptopropionylglycine, Experientia, 1979; 35(12):1628-9.
31. Pantev TP, Topalova SP, Isakov IL, Toxicological and radiobiological characteristics of meprin S derivatives, Farmakol Toksikol. 1981; 44(4):476-8.
32. Devi PU, Saharan BR, Chemical protection of mouse spermatocytes against gamma-rays with 2-mercaptopropionylglycine, Experientia. 1978; 34(1):91-2.
33. Devi PU, Jagetia GC, Effect of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG) on thyroid function in sub-lethally irradiated mice, Experientia. 1981; 37(3):312-3.
34. Maisin JR, Albert C, Henry A, Reduction of short-term radiation lethality by biological response modifiers given alone or in association with other chemical protectors, Radiation Research. 1993; 135: 332-337.
35. Sugahara T, Horikawa M, Hikita M, Nagata H, Studies on a sulfhydryl radioprotector of low toxicity, Experientia Suppl. 1977;27:53-61.
36. Nagata H, Sugahara T, Tanaka T, Radiation protection by 2-mercaptopropionylglycine in mice, J Radiat. Res, 1972;13,163-166.
Mice in vitro
Strain Type of tissue/cell &/or
Type of assay
Mouse L cells Effect on survival[37].
effect on survival of unirradiated as well as X-irradiated cells[35]


35. Sugahara T, Horikawa M, Hikita M, Nagata H, Studies on a sulfhydryl radioprotector of low toxicity, Experientia Suppl. 1977;27:53-61.
37. Hikita M, Horikawa M, Mori T, Analyses of radioprotective action and cytotoxicity of various sulfhydryl compounds in cultured mouse L cells, J Radiat Res. 1975, 16(3):162-72.
Rat in vivo
Strain Type of tissue/cell &/or
Type of assay
Female albino rats Effect on radiation induced uterine contractility[38].
effect of MPG on radiation-induced odontogenic tissue metaplasia[39].
rat Effect on radiation induced osteodentin[40].
Effect on development of X-ray induced cataract[41].


38. Elsayed EM, Ramadan LA, Abdel Aziz AA, Moustafa AM, Hamada FM., The effect of thiola, piroxicam and diltiazem on the uterine contractility of gamma-irradiated rats, Pharmacol Res. 1996;34(5-6):231-6.
39. Geist JR, Kafrawy AH, Shupe RE., The effect of MPG on radiation-induced odontogenic tissue metaplasia, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol., 1988; 65(1):109-13.
40. Geist JR, Shupe RE, Kafrawy AH, Evaluation of chemical protection against radiogenic osteodentin synthesis. J Oral Pathol 1988; 17: 26-29.
41. Kobayashi S, Kasuya M, Ishii Y, Takehana M, Sakai K, Suzuki N, Itoi M, Effects of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine on the development of X-ray induced cataract in rats, Curr Eye Res. 1992;11(11):1099-103.
Rat in vitro
Strain Type of tissue/cell &/or
Type of assay
Rat liver microsomal suspension Effect on lipid bilayer[42].


42. Garner A, Jamal Z, Slater TF, Effects of 2-mercaptopropionyl glycine on radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes and in rat liver microsomal suspensions, Int J Radiat Biol Relat Stud Phys Chem Med. 1986;50(2):323-35.
Chinese Hamster in vitro
Strain Type of tissue/cell &/or
Type of assay
Chinese hamster cell line(V-79) Effect on single-strand DNA breaks[43].


43. Modig HG, Edgren M, Révész L, Effect of radioprotective aminothiols on the induction and repair of single-strand breaks in the DNA of irradiated mammalian cells, Acta Radiol Ther Phys Biol. 1977;16(3):245-56.
Strain Type of tissue/cell &/or
Type of assay
Mice, rats, guinea pigs, pigeons Radioprotective effect and effect of combinations with different aminothiols as well as types of radiation[44].
In vitro study Effect on neutrophill locomotion[45].
human T-cell leukemia cell line Jurkat (clone E6–1)(study exclusive of radiation) Low concentrations of N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine (0.03 mM) cause growth arrest, and intermediate concentrations (0.3–1.0 mM) induced apoptosis [46].


44. Sántha A., Mándi E., Benkó G. and Bodó S. Z. Proceedings: The radioprotective effect of alpha-mercaptopropionylglycine and its combinations on animals, Br J Cancer. 1975 December; 32(6): 768.
45. Patrone F, Dallegri F, Lanzi G, Sacchetti C., Effects of N-(2-mercaptopropionyl) glycine on neutrophil locomotion, Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1981; 64(3):259-65.
46. Hernandez-Saavedra D, McCord JM, Paradoxical effects of thiol reagents on Jurkat cells and a new thiol-sensitive mutant form of human mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, Cancer Res. 2003; 63:159-163.