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Tinospora cordifolia

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TOXICITY

Toxicity
values:
IC50 value of different extracts of T. cordifolia against SiHa cells and HT-29 cells in vitro:
Ethanol: Water (80:20) extract is >100 µg/ml
n-Hexane fraction is >100 µg/ml
Ethyl acetate fraction is >100 µg/ml
n-Butanol fraction is >100 µg/ml
Water fraction is >100 µg/ml
IC50 value of different extracts of T. cordifolia against KB cells in vitro:
Ethanol: Water (80:20) extract is 44.3 µg/ml
n-Hexane fraction is 48.2 µg/ml
Ethyl acetate fraction is 52.7 µg/ml
n-Butanol fraction is 49.1 µg/ml
Water fraction is >100 µg/ml
IC50 value of different extracts of T. cordifolia against CHOK-1 cells in vitro:
Ethanol: Water (80:20) extract is 18.5 µg/ml
n-Hexane fraction is 22.9 µg/ml
Ethyl acetate fraction is 41.7 µg/ml
n-Butanol fraction is 21.7 µg/ml
Water fraction is 18.4 µg/ml[8]
Tablet of Tinospora cordifolia when taken once daily orally found to be safe at a dose of 500mg per day for a period 21 days in healthy volunteers for biochemical,hematological parameters tested[9]
Adverse
reactions:
Effect on
various
metabolisms/
pathways:
Mutagenicity
or Carcinogen-
icity Data:
Epoxy clerodane diterpene from T. cordifolia exhibited preventive effect against chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats[1]
n-hexane extract showed potent antimutagenicity[2]
antimutagenic and anticarciinogenic in mice, alcoholic extract prevented formation of micronuclei in bone marrow cells of mice[3]
Fertility: Oral administration of 70% methanolic extract of T. cordifolia stem to male rats at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day for 60 days producrd antifertility effects. Treatment with extract decreased the weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly which resulted in reduction of male fertility by 100%. Seminiferous tubule diameter, Leydig cell nuclear area as well as mature Leydig cell numbers, cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells were reduced significantly. Biochemical parameters i.e. protein, sialic acid, glycogen contents of testes decreased significantly. Seminal vesicular fructose also depleted whereas, testicular cholesterol was elevated significantly followed by a reduction in testosterone levels[4]
protective effects of T. cordifolia dietary supplementation(1g/kg body weight for 6 months) in Muzzafarnagari rams was demonstrated. Supplementation of T. cordifolia resulted in enhanced antioxidant enzymes and cholesterol concentrations in semen, which may protect the spermatozoa during cryopreservation and thus enhancing fertility in farm animals.
[6]
Pregnancy: T. cordifolia during pregnancy is suggested to provide significant protection against diabetes-induced oxidative stress, in an in vivo study with rats.[5]
is suggested be useful as a supplementary pharmacologic intervention for the periconception management of a diabetic pregnancy.[5]
diet supplemented with T. cordifolia to pregnant rats could significantly ameliorate the diabetes-induced embryolethality and fetal weight decrease and improve maternal body weight gain. Further it was demonstrated to modulate oxidative stress in the maternal, placental, and fetal milieu[5]
Breast Feeding: The increase of milk production over 305 days of lactation due to guduchi supplementation was significant in Karan Fries crossbred cows when supplemented with supplemented with guduchi at 60 g/day for 45 days prepartum and 120 g/day for 45 days postpartum[7]
REFERENCES
1. Dhanasekaran M et al, Chemopreventive potential of Epoxy clerodane diterpene from Tinospora cordifolia against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Invest New Drugs. 2009;27(4):347-55.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-008-9181-9
2. Sharma U et al, Antimutagenic extract from Tinospora cordifolia and its chemical composition. 2010;4(23):2488-2494.
http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/JMPR/article-abstract/024AA5E21433
3. Verma R, Chaudhary HS, Agrawal RC, Evaluation of anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effect of Tinospora cordifolia in experimental animals. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 2011; 3(6):877-881.
http://jocpr.com/vol3-iss6-2011/JCPR-2011-3-6-877-881.pdf
4. Gupta RS, Sharma A, Antifertility effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) stem extract in male rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2003;41(8):885-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15248490
5. Shivananjappa MM, Muralidhara, Abrogation of maternal and fetal oxidative stress in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat by dietary supplements of Tinospora cordifolia. Nutrition. 2012;28(5):581-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2011.09.015
6. Jayaganthan P et al, Effects of Tinospora cordifolia supplementation on semen quality and hormonal profile in rams. Anim Reprod Sci. 2013;140(1-2):47-53.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2013.05.003
7. Mallick S, Prakash BS, Influence of feeding Tinospora cordifolia peripartum on lactation parameters in crossbred cows. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2012;96(6):1112-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01228.x
8. Bala M et al, Validation of ethnomedicinal potential of Tinospora cordifolia for anticancer and immunomodulatory activities and quantification of bioactive molecules by HPTLC. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015;175(4):131–137.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.001
9. Karkal YR, Bairy LK, Safety of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) in healthy volunteers: A double blind randomised placebo controlled study. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2007;6(1):59-61.
http://ijpt.iums.ac.ir/index.php/ijpt/article/view/159/257