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Tinospora cordifolia

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General Features                  Clinical Study                  Chemical Intervention                 Pharmacological Aspects                 
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PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS

Half-life:
levels in
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The oral administration of root extract of T. cordifolis (2.5 and 5.0 g/kg) for 6 weeks decreased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, ceruloplasmin and alphatocopherol and also caused an increase in the levels of glutathione and vitamin C in alloxan diabetic rats[1]
Oral administration of the alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots for 6 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in blood and urine glucose and in lipids, in serum and tissues in alloxan diabetic rats[2]; however aqueous, alcoholic, and chloroform extracts of the leaves of Tinospora cordifolia can significantly reduce the blood glucose but not the total lipid levels in normal as well as alloxan-diabetic rabbits.[3].
Uptake/
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metabolites:
enzymes
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A significant reduction in serum levels of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin were observed following T. cordifolia treatment during CCl4 intoxication in rats[4]
petroleum ether extract of T. cordifolia reduced the whole brain monoamine oxidase (MAO-A and MAO-B) activities in mice[5]
polysaccharide fraction from Tinospora cordifolia reduced serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, lung collagen hydroxyproline in experimental metastasis model (lungs of syngeneic C57BL/6 mice bearing B16F-10 melanoma)[6]
glucocorticoid receptors levels were high in berberine(one of the alkaloids)-treated HepG2 cells, also the secretion of alpha-fetoprotein by HepG2 cells was inhibited by berberine[7]
The stem extract of Tinospora cordifolia was found to inhibit the alpha glucosidase. The extract was also found to inhibit the salivary and pancreatic amylase in animals[8]
macrophage cell line J774A.1, when treated with Tinospora cordifolia showed enhanced NADH-oxidase, NADPH-oxidase and myeloperoxidase production[9]
Oral administration of aqueous stem extract and aqueous leaves extract increased the activities of SOD and CAT and decreased the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and ACP enzymes induced by lead nitrite in mice in vivo[10]
hexane extract of T. cordifolia induced of caspase-3 activated DNase mediated apoptosis in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in tumor bearing mice[11]
various concentrations of stem extract of T. cordifolia, has resulted in a concentration-dependent decline in the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in HeLa cells[12]
methanolic plant extract of T. cordifolia is demonstrated to inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro[13]
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REFERENCES
1. Prince PS, Menon VP, Antioxidant activity of Tinospora cordifolia roots in experimental diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;65(3):277-81.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00164-0
2. Stanely Mainzen Prince P, Menon VP, Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic action of alcohol extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots in chemical induced diabetes in rats. Phytother Res. 2003;17(4):410-3.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1130
3. Wadood N, Wadood A, Shah SA, Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on blood glucose and total lipid levels of normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. Planta Med. 1992;58(2):131-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-961414
4. Bishayi B et al, Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of Tinospora cordifolia in CCl4 intoxicated mature albino rats. J Toxicol Sci. 2002;27(3):139-46.
http://doi.org/10.2131/jts.27.139
5. Dhingra D, Goyal PK, Evidences for the involvement of monoaminergic and GABAergic systems in antidepressant-like activity of Tinospora cordifolia in mice. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008; 70(6): 761–767.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.49118
6. Leyon PV, Kuttan G, Inhibitory effect of a polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia on experimental metastasis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;90(2-3):233-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2003.09.046
7. Chi CW et al, Flowcytometric analysis of the effect of berberine on the expression of glucocorticoid receptors in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Life Sci. 1994;54(26):2099-107.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(94)00719-5
8. Chougale AD et al, Alpha glucosidase inhibition by stem extract of Tinospora cordifolia. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009;24(4):998-1001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14756360802565346
9. More P, Pai K, In vitro NADH-oxidase, NADPH-oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity of macrophages after Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi) treatment. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012;34(3):368-72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08923973.2011.606324
10. Sharma V, Pandey D, Protective Role of Tinospora cordifolia against Lead-induced Hepatotoxicity. Toxicol Int. 2010;17(1):12-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.68343
11. Thippeswamy G, Salimath BP, Induction of caspase-3 activated DNase mediated apoptosis by hexane fraction of Tinospora cordifolia in EAT cells. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007;23(2):212-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2006.10.004
12. Jagetia GC, Rao SK, Evaluation of cytotoxic effects of Dichloromethane extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers ex Hook F & THOMS) on cultured HeLa cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 ;3(2):267-72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nel011
13. Vinutha B et al, Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007;109(2):359–363.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.06.014