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Syzygium cumini

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General Features                  Clinical Study                  Chemical Intervention                 Pharmacological Aspects                 
Radiobiological Aspects                  Biological Models                  Biological Target                  Toxicity                 


PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS

Half-life:
levels in
cells/tissues
/organs
Serum/Plasma
level:
Serum/Plasma
constituents/
protein binding
:
Uptake/
Distribution
:
Diffusion in tumor:
Pathway:
Biotrans-
formation
Location:
metabolites:
enzymes
associated
with
metabolism
Effect on Enzymes
(non-target),
protein levels/
influence on
receptors:
Aqueous extract of seeds inhibited porcine pancreatic α-amylase, rat intestinal α-glucosidase, and sucrase in in vitro model[1]
phenolic compounds and hydrolyzable tannins from seed exhibited αglucosidase inhibitory activity[2]
Ethanolic extract of fruit caused a reduction in serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transferase and muscle enzyme creatinine phosphokinase in hyperlipidaemic male albino rats in vivo[3]
ethanolic seed extract enhanced mucin and mucosal glycoprotein in gastric mucosa of rats[4]
Crude extract inhibited human cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9 CYP2D6 and CYP3A4[5]
The alteration in hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content and hepatic glucokinase, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate and phosphofructokinase levels in diabetic mice were partially restored by Eugenia jambolana[6]
Seed extract lowers in LDL oxidation vitro and in vivo and expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin in atherogenic rats[7]
ethanolic seed extract decreased activity of HMG-CoA reductase in diabetic rabbit[8]
116 kDa arabinogalactan containing p-coumaric and ferulic acids in monomeric and dimeric forms isolated from E. jambolana is demonstrated to induce conformational change of BSA at high concentration[9]
polymeric hydrolyzable tannins isolated from E. jambolana inhibited α-amylase in vitro human starch digestion model[10], Compounds from the aqueous extract of S. cumini seeds showed α-amylase inhibitory activity[11]
Aqueous leaf extract caused dose-dependent inhibition of adenosine deaminase in vitro[12]
Aqueous leaf extract decreasd Adenosine deaminase and 5'-Nucleotidase in diabetic patients[13]
Transporters
/Carriers:
Aqueous seed extract is shown to inhibit the glucose transport at the site of intestinal brush border membrane in everted rat gut sacs in vitro [14]
Route of
Elimination:
Excretion
/Clearance:
Pharmaco-
dynamics:
REFERENCES
1. Ahmed F, Chandra JNNS, Timmaiah NV, An In vitro study on the inhibitory activities of Eugenia jambolana seeds against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. J Young Pharm. 2009; 1 (4):327-331.
http://www.jyoungpharm.org/article/407
2. Omar R et al, α-Glucosidase inhibitory hydrolyzable tannins from Eugenia jambolana seeds. J. Nat. Prod. 2012; 75: 1505−1509.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np300417q
3. Bilal R et al, Comparison of simvastatin with Eugenia Jambolana fruit pulp in their effects on Alanine Transferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase and Creatinine Phosphokinase levels of hyperlipidaemic rats. JPMA. 2011; 61(12): 1190-1194.
http://jpma.org.pk/full_article_text.php?article_id=3183
4. Chaturvedi A et al, Effect of ethanolic extract of Eugenia jambolana seeds on gastric ulceration and secretion in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;51(2):131-40.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18175656
5. Chinni S et al, Effect of crude extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. on human Cytochrome P450 enzymes. Phytother. Res. 2014;28(11):1731-1734.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5137
6. Grover JK, Vats V, Rathi SS, Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Eugenia jambolana and Tinospora cordifolia in experimental diabetes and their effects on key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 ;73(3):461-70.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00319-6
7. Jadeja RN et al, Standardized flavonoid-rich Eugenia jambolana seed extract retards in vitro and in vivo LDL oxidation and expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin in atherogenic rats. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2012;12(1):73-82.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12012-011-9140-0
8. Sharma SB et al, Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Eugenia jambolana in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;85(2-3):201-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00366-5
9. Bandopadhyay SS et al, Structure, fluorescence quenching and antioxidant activity of a carbohydrate polymer from Eugenia jambolana. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2012;51(1-2):58–164.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2012.04.004
10. Tong WY et al, Inhibiting enzymatic starch digestion by hydrolyzable tannins isolated from Eugenia jambolana. LWT - Food Science and Technology 2014;59(1):389–395.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.04.007
11. Karthic K et al, Identification of alpha amylase inhibitors from Syzygium cumini Linn seeds. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008;46(9):677-80.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18949899
12. Bopp A et al, Syzygium cumini inhibits adenosine deaminase activity and reduces glucose levels in hyperglycemic patients. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2009;23(4):501-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.14728206.2009.00700.x
13. De Bona KS et al, Syzygium cumini extract decrease adenosine deaminase, 5'nucleotidase activities and oxidative damage in platelets of diabetic patients. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2010;26(45): 729-38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000322340
14. David E et al, Eugenia jambolana seed extract inhibit uptake of glucose across rat everted gut sacs in vitro. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Devlopement. 2010;2(9):107-112.
http://www.oalib.com/paper/2735912#.V7QsA00rLIU