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Tinospora cordifolia

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GENERAL FEATURES

Name: Tinospora cordifolia
Name/
synonyms:
Binomial name:Tinospora cordifolia Miers[1], [70]
Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thoms[5], [9],[70]
Synonyms/common names :Tippa teega[2]
guduchi[3],[4], [5],[6], Amrita [6]
Neem Giloe[7], [71]
English names:Heart leaf moonseed[8]
Trade name: “guduchi” from the Himalaya Drug Co., Bangalore, India[68]
Description: Family : Menispermaceae[10], [2], [11], [3], [12],[13],[70]
It is a glabrous, perennial, deciduous, climbing shrub of weak and fleshy stem, found throughout India.[5]
Extract used: hydroalcoholic (80% ethanol: 20% distilled water) extract[14]
petroleum ether extract [15]
methanolic extract[16]
dichloromethane extract[17],[72], DCM extract showed antineoplastic effect[3], [9]
water extract[7]
aqueous extract[18],[19]
chloroform extract[18], [17]
ethanol extract[1],[21]
ethyl acetate extract[17],[22]
hexane extract[17], [23]
Methyl-tertiary-butyl Ether Extract, acetone extract, hot and cold water extract, isopropanol extract[24] butanol extract[22]
hydro-methanolic extract[67]
methylene chloride extract[71]
aqua-alcoholic extract[73]
hydroalcoholic extract[74]
Phyto-constituents
(active):
glycosides, alkaloids, aliphatic compounds, diterpenoid lactones, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, polysaccharides[25], [4],[66]
Saponin, tannin[67]
alkaloids: berberine, palmatine, tembetarine, isocolumbin, magnoflorine, choline, tetrahydropalmatine
Glycosides : syringin, tinocordiside, cordifolioside A
steroids: β-sitosterol, ecdysterone
aliphatic compounds: octacosanol, heptacosanol
and jatrorrhizine[11],[26], [27],[28],[29],[10]
tinosporin[26]
cordiol (TC-7), cordioside (TC-2),[27], alpha-D-glucan[30]
20-betahydroxyecdysone, tinosporaside, cordioside, and columbin(diterpenoid furanolactone)[31], [32]
Epoxy clerodane diterpene[33]
Cadinane Sesquiterpene Glycoside, tinocordiside[19]
phenolic lignan (3-(α ,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)tetrahydrofuran), nonacosan-15-one, and β-sitosterol[28]
alkaloids: magnoflorine and tembetarine[13]
saponarin (apigenin-6-C-glucosyl-7-O-glucoside[34]
flavanoids[34]
soluble sugars[35]
11-Hydroxymutakone, N-Formylannonain, Magnoflorine, Yangambin[20]
Leaves:
The compounds identified in essential oil from fresh leaves include alcohols, phenols, aldehydes , fatty acids , alkanes , esters , terpenes. Major components of the leaf essential oil were hydroquinone , 2-hexenal, palmitic acid , 2-hexen-1-ol and phytol [36]
Fruit:
Roots, stem and bark:
arabinogalactan has been reporte to be isolated from the dried stems of Tinospora cordifolia[37], [38]
From the n-BuOH fraction of the Tinospora cordifolia stems, the new norditerpene furan glycosides cordifoliside A, B and C have been isolated[39]
Cordioside, a clerodane furano diterpene glucoside from Tinospora cordifolia stem has been isolated[40]
syringin, cordifolioside A, magnoflorine and tinocordiside in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia[41]
alkaloids, fatty acid methyl esters, polysaccharides[41]
Quarternary alkaloids : berberine and palmatine, with jatrorrhizine an occasional minor constituent, and the aporphine base magnoflorine. Choline was also often present[12],[6]
sesquiterpene, tinocordifolin, has been isolated from the stem of Tinospora cordifolia[43]
Maksiterone-A from stem[69]
flavones and its derivatives (3-glycosides, flavonones, and flavonols have been reported in aqua-alcoholic stem extract[73]
alkaloids : tetrahydropalmatin and jatrorrhizine, in the roots of Tinospora cordifolia[44]
Actions
& Indications:
Pharmcological Action-
immunomodulatory[45],[46] and hepatoprotective in rats[47]
immunopotentiator[27],[30]
antiangiogenic activity in animals[48]
inhibited experimental metastasis in mice[49], anti-metastatic[29], in C6 glioma cells[50], in MCF-7 cell(heaxane extract)[51]
Antiinflammatory in rats[52], analgesic in albino rats [7]
antifungal(methanolic crude extracts)[42]
immunosuppressive in albino rabbits[7]
antipyretic[75]
analgesic in animals(rats)[68]
The ethanol extracts of roots exhibited antiulcer activity[21]
antidiabetic in animal model[26]
Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic action of alcohol extract in diabetic rat model[53]
mild hypoglycemic in mice[42], [34], in normal as well as diabetic rabbit model[18]
antihyperglycemic in mice[42] in diabetic animals[55]
neuroprotective in rat in vitro[56]
antitumor activity in animals[46],[29],[57]
Ethanolic[58] and methanolic[22] leaf extract showed antioxidant property [34], and also demonstrated by essential oil extracted from fresh leaves[36]
antioxidant properties[59],in vitro[67], antioxidant(ethanolic bark extract)[60]
antineoplatic in animals[3], and in human in vitro[76]
antipyretic (ethanolic extract)[2]
Therapeutic indications:
Tinospora cordifolia extract found to be significantly decreased all symptoms of allergic rhinitis in patients in clinical trial[61]
It is commonly used for fevers, infectious skin diseases, gastrointestinal disturbances, tuberculosis, bronchitis, syphilis, cancers and malaria, also used to treat impotence, spermatorrhea and general debility. The juice is considered diuretic, an antidote to snakebite and is used in chronic fever and chronic cough[10]
Preclinical study-
arabinogalactan polysaccharide, G1-4A, from the stem of Tinospora cordifolia is found to protect mice as well as human monocytic cell line, U937, against lipopolysaccharide induced endotoxic shock by modulation of cytokines and nitric oxide[38].
petroleum ether extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) administered for 14 successive days to mice produced significant antidepressant-like effect in mice[15]
T. cordifolia as an adjuvant therapy was found to promising in healing foot ulcers in diabetic patients[45]
cardioprotective activity of T. cordifolia is observed in limiting ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial infarction in rat moel in vivo[62]
Tinospora cordifolia appears to improve surgical outcome in patinets with malignant obstructive jaundice by strengthening host defenses[63]
T. cordifolia extract treatment suppressed arthritic inflammation and bone and cartilage damage in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model of human Rheumatoid arthritis[64]
ethanol extract of Tinospora cordifolia exhibited antistress activity[1]
ethanolic extract of T. cordifolia and its active components is speculated to prove to be promising phytotherapeutic interventions in gliobalstoma multiformae.[50]
hydromethanolic extract of stem of Tinospora cordifolia was reported to be effective against bovine subclinical mastitis[54]
aqueous stem and leaf extract protected Swiss albino mice against lead-induced hepatotoxicity[65]
Its use is suggested to be safe and effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus as well as a supportive drug without fear of producing hypoglycaemia[42]
Notes: Berberine and tinosporaside are identified as biomarkers for T. cordifolia using TLC analysis[66]
REFERENCES
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