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Tinospora cordifolia

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Name: Tinospora cordifolia
Binomial name:Tinospora cordifolia Miers[1], [70]
Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thoms[5], [9],[70]
Synonyms/common names :Tippa teega[2]
guduchi[3],[4], [5],[6], Amrita [6]
Neem Giloe[7], [71]
English names:Heart leaf moonseed[8]
Trade name: “guduchi” from the Himalaya Drug Co., Bangalore, India[68]
Description: Family : Menispermaceae[10], [2], [11], [3], [12],[13],[70]
It is a glabrous, perennial, deciduous, climbing shrub of weak and fleshy stem, found throughout India.[5]
Extract used: hydroalcoholic (80% ethanol: 20% distilled water) extract[14]
petroleum ether extract [15]
methanolic extract[16]
dichloromethane extract[17],[72], DCM extract showed antineoplastic effect[3], [9]
water extract[7]
aqueous extract[18],[19]
chloroform extract[18], [17]
ethanol extract[1],[21]
ethyl acetate extract[17],[22]
hexane extract[17], [23]
Methyl-tertiary-butyl Ether Extract, acetone extract, hot and cold water extract, isopropanol extract[24] butanol extract[22]
hydro-methanolic extract[67]
methylene chloride extract[71]
aqua-alcoholic extract[73]
hydroalcoholic extract[74]
glycosides, alkaloids, aliphatic compounds, diterpenoid lactones, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, polysaccharides[25], [4],[66]
Saponin, tannin[67]
alkaloids: berberine, palmatine, tembetarine, isocolumbin, magnoflorine, choline, tetrahydropalmatine
Glycosides : syringin, tinocordiside, cordifolioside A
steroids: β-sitosterol, ecdysterone
aliphatic compounds: octacosanol, heptacosanol
and jatrorrhizine[11],[26], [27],[28],[29],[10]
cordiol (TC-7), cordioside (TC-2),[27], alpha-D-glucan[30]
20-betahydroxyecdysone, tinosporaside, cordioside, and columbin(diterpenoid furanolactone)[31], [32]
Epoxy clerodane diterpene[33]
Cadinane Sesquiterpene Glycoside, tinocordiside[19]
phenolic lignan (3-(α ,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)tetrahydrofuran), nonacosan-15-one, and β-sitosterol[28]
alkaloids: magnoflorine and tembetarine[13]
saponarin (apigenin-6-C-glucosyl-7-O-glucoside[34]
soluble sugars[35]
11-Hydroxymutakone, N-Formylannonain, Magnoflorine, Yangambin[20]
The compounds identified in essential oil from fresh leaves include alcohols, phenols, aldehydes , fatty acids , alkanes , esters , terpenes. Major components of the leaf essential oil were hydroquinone , 2-hexenal, palmitic acid , 2-hexen-1-ol and phytol [36]
Roots, stem and bark:
arabinogalactan has been reporte to be isolated from the dried stems of Tinospora cordifolia[37], [38]
From the n-BuOH fraction of the Tinospora cordifolia stems, the new norditerpene furan glycosides cordifoliside A, B and C have been isolated[39]
Cordioside, a clerodane furano diterpene glucoside from Tinospora cordifolia stem has been isolated[40]
syringin, cordifolioside A, magnoflorine and tinocordiside in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia[41]
alkaloids, fatty acid methyl esters, polysaccharides[41]
Quarternary alkaloids : berberine and palmatine, with jatrorrhizine an occasional minor constituent, and the aporphine base magnoflorine. Choline was also often present[12],[6]
sesquiterpene, tinocordifolin, has been isolated from the stem of Tinospora cordifolia[43]
Maksiterone-A from stem[69]
flavones and its derivatives (3-glycosides, flavonones, and flavonols have been reported in aqua-alcoholic stem extract[73]
alkaloids : tetrahydropalmatin and jatrorrhizine, in the roots of Tinospora cordifolia[44]
& Indications:
Pharmcological Action-
immunomodulatory[45],[46] and hepatoprotective in rats[47]
antiangiogenic activity in animals[48]
inhibited experimental metastasis in mice[49], anti-metastatic[29], in C6 glioma cells[50], in MCF-7 cell(heaxane extract)[51]
Antiinflammatory in rats[52], analgesic in albino rats [7]
antifungal(methanolic crude extracts)[42]
immunosuppressive in albino rabbits[7]
analgesic in animals(rats)[68]
The ethanol extracts of roots exhibited antiulcer activity[21]
antidiabetic in animal model[26]
Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic action of alcohol extract in diabetic rat model[53]
mild hypoglycemic in mice[42], [34], in normal as well as diabetic rabbit model[18]
antihyperglycemic in mice[42] in diabetic animals[55]
neuroprotective in rat in vitro[56]
antitumor activity in animals[46],[29],[57]
Ethanolic[58] and methanolic[22] leaf extract showed antioxidant property [34], and also demonstrated by essential oil extracted from fresh leaves[36]
antioxidant properties[59],in vitro[67], antioxidant(ethanolic bark extract)[60]
antineoplatic in animals[3], and in human in vitro[76]
antipyretic (ethanolic extract)[2]
Therapeutic indications:
Tinospora cordifolia extract found to be significantly decreased all symptoms of allergic rhinitis in patients in clinical trial[61]
It is commonly used for fevers, infectious skin diseases, gastrointestinal disturbances, tuberculosis, bronchitis, syphilis, cancers and malaria, also used to treat impotence, spermatorrhea and general debility. The juice is considered diuretic, an antidote to snakebite and is used in chronic fever and chronic cough[10]
Preclinical study-
arabinogalactan polysaccharide, G1-4A, from the stem of Tinospora cordifolia is found to protect mice as well as human monocytic cell line, U937, against lipopolysaccharide induced endotoxic shock by modulation of cytokines and nitric oxide[38].
petroleum ether extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) administered for 14 successive days to mice produced significant antidepressant-like effect in mice[15]
T. cordifolia as an adjuvant therapy was found to promising in healing foot ulcers in diabetic patients[45]
cardioprotective activity of T. cordifolia is observed in limiting ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial infarction in rat moel in vivo[62]
Tinospora cordifolia appears to improve surgical outcome in patinets with malignant obstructive jaundice by strengthening host defenses[63]
T. cordifolia extract treatment suppressed arthritic inflammation and bone and cartilage damage in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model of human Rheumatoid arthritis[64]
ethanol extract of Tinospora cordifolia exhibited antistress activity[1]
ethanolic extract of T. cordifolia and its active components is speculated to prove to be promising phytotherapeutic interventions in gliobalstoma multiformae.[50]
hydromethanolic extract of stem of Tinospora cordifolia was reported to be effective against bovine subclinical mastitis[54]
aqueous stem and leaf extract protected Swiss albino mice against lead-induced hepatotoxicity[65]
Its use is suggested to be safe and effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus as well as a supportive drug without fear of producing hypoglycaemia[42]
Notes: Berberine and tinosporaside are identified as biomarkers for T. cordifolia using TLC analysis[66]
1. Sarma DNK et al, Antistress activity of Tinospora cordifolia and Centella asiatica extracts. Phytotherapy Research. 1996; 10(2):181–183.
2. Vedavathy S, Rao KN, Antipyretic activity of six indigenous medicinal plants of Tirumala Hills, Andhra Pradesh, India. J Ethnopharmacol. 1991 ;33(1-2):193-6.
3. Jagetia GC, Rao SK, Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29(3):460-6.
4. Saha S, Ghosh S, Tinospora cordifolia: One plant, many roles. Anc Sci Life. 2012; 31(4): 151–159.
5. Upadhyay AK et al, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thoms. (Guduchi) – validation of the Ayurvedic pharmacology through experimental and clinical studies. Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010; 1(2): 112–121.
6. Srinivasan GV et al, HPLC Estimation of berberine in Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008; 70(1): 96–99.
7. Pendse VK et al, Antiinflammatory, immunosuppressive and some related pharmacological actions of the water extract of Neem Giloe (Tinospora cordifolia): A preliminary report. Ind J Pharmacol. 1977;9(3):221-224.
8. Meshram A et al, Potential role of Tinospora cordifolia in pharmaceuticals. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;2(6):4615-4625.
9. Jagetia GC, Rao SK, Evaluation of cytotoxic effects of Dichloromethane extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers ex Hook F & THOMS) on cultured HeLa cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 ;3(2):267-72.
10. Spelman K, Traditional and clinical use of Tinospora cordifolia, guduchi. Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism. 2001;13(2): 49-54, 56-7.
11. Reddy NM, Reddy RR, Tinospora cordifolia chemical constituents and medicinal properties: A Review. Sch. Acad. J. Pharm., 2015; 4(8): 364-369
12. Bisset NG, Nwaiwu J, Quaternary alkaloids of tinospora species. Planta Med. 1983;48(8):275-9.
13. Pachaly P, Schneider C, Alkaloide aus Tinospora cordifolia Miers. Archiv der Pharmazie. 1981; 314(3):251–256.
14. Singh RP et al, Tinospora cordifolia induces enzymes of carcinogen/drug metabolism and antioxidant system, and inhibits lipid peroxidation in mice. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(1-2):74-84.
15. Dhingra D, Goyal PK, Evidences for the involvement of monoaminergic and GABAergic systems in antidepressant-like activity of Tinospora cordifolia in mice. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008; 70(6): 761–767.
16. Gupta RS, Sharma A, Antifertility effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) stem extract in male rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2003;41(8):885-9.
17. Chougale AD et al, Alpha glucosidase inhibition by stem extract of Tinospora cordifolia. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009;24(4):998-1001.
18. Wadood N, Wadood A, Shah SA, Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on blood glucose and total lipid levels of normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. Planta Med. 1992;58(2):131-6.
19. Ghosal S, Vishwakarma RA, Tinocordiside, a new rearranged Cadinane Sesquiterpene Glycoside from Tinospora cordifolia. J. Nat. Prod. 1997; 60 (8):839–841.
20. Bala M et al, Validation of ethnomedicinal potential of Tinospora cordifolia for anticancer and immunomodulatory activities and quantification of bioactive molecules by HPTLC. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015;175(4):131–137.
21. Sarma DNK et al, Antiulcer activity of Tinospora cordifolia Miers and Centella asiatica linn extracts. Phytother. Res. 1995; 9(8):589–590.
22. Praveen N et al, Antioxidant activity of Tinospora cordifolia leaf extracts through non-enzymatic method. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2012; 6(33):4790-4795.
23. Sharma U et al, Antimutagenic extract from Tinospora cordifolia and its chemical composition. 2010;4(23):2488-2494.
24. Sudha P et al, Potent α-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11:5.
25. Singh SS et al, Chemistry and medicinal properties of Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi). Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2003; 35: 83-91.
26. Sharma R et al, Antidiabetic claims of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers: critical appraisal and role in therapy. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2015; 5(1):68–78.
27. Kapil A, Sharma S, Immunopotentiating compounds from Tinospora cordifolia. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997;58(2):89-95.
28. Hanuman JB, Mishra AK, Sabata B, A natural phenolic lignan from Tinospora cordifolia Miers. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1986; 1:1181-1185.
29. Thippeswamy G, Sheela ML, Salimath BP, Octacosanol isolated from Tinospora cordifolia downregulates VEGF gene expression by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-B and its DNA binding activity. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;588(2-3):141-50.
30. Nair PK et al, Immune stimulating properties of a novel polysaccharide from the medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 ;4(13):1645-59.
31. Ahmed SM et al, Quantitative determination of four constituents of Tinospora sps. by a reversed-phase HPLC-UV-DAD method. Broad-based studies revealing variation in content of four secondary metabolites in the plant from different eco-geographical regions of India. J Chromatogr Sci. 2006;44(8):504-9.
32. Swaminathan K et al, Structure of columbin, a diterpenoid furanolactone from Tinospora cordifolia Miers. Acta Crystallogr C. 1989;45 ( Pt 2):300-3.
33. Dhanasekaran M et al, Chemopreventive potential of Epoxy clerodane diterpene from Tinospora cordifolia against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Invest New Drugs. 2009;27(4):347-55.
34. Sengupta S et al, Hypoglycemic activity of the antioxidant saponarin, characterized as alpha-glucosidase inhibitor present in Tinospora cordifolia. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009;24(3):684-90.
35. Sharma U et al, Simultaneous determination of ten sugars in Tinospora cordifolia by ultrasonic assisted extraction and LC-ELSD. Chromatographia. 2010; 71(7):633-638.
36. Naik D, Dandge C, Rupanar S, Determination of chemical composition and evaluation of antioxidant activity of essential oil from Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) leaf. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2014;17(2):228-236.
37. Chintalwar G et al, An immunologically active arabinogalactan from Tinospora cordifolia. Phytochemistry. 1999;52(6):1089-93.
38. Desai VR et al, G1-4A, an immunomodulatory polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia, modulates macrophage responses and protects mice against lipopolysaccharide induced endotoxic shock. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007;7(10):1375-86.
39. Gangan VD et al, Cordifolisides A, B, C: norditerpene furan glycosides from Tinospora cordifolia. Phytochemistry. 1994;37(3):781-6.
40. Wazir V, Maurya R, kapil RS, Cordioside, a clerodane furano diterpene glucoside from Tinospora cordifolia. Phytochemistry. 1995;38(2):447-449.
41. Bala M et al, Chemical prospection of important ayurvedic plant Tinospora cordifolia by UPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and NMR. Nat Prod Commun. 2015 ;10(1):43-8.
42. Singh S, Srivastava R, Choudhary S, Antifungal and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the crude extracts of Acorus calamus, Tinospora cordifolia and Celestrus paniculatus. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 2011;44(9):902-910.
43. Maurya R, Handa SS, Tinocordifolin, a sesquiterpene from Tinospora cordifolia. Phytochemistry. 1998;49(5):1343–1345.
44. Sarma DNK, Koul S, Khosa RL, Alkaloids from Tinospora cordifolia Miers. J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. 2009;1(1):26-27.
45. Purandare H, Supe A, Immunomodulatory role of Tinospora cordifolia as an adjuvant in surgical treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective randomized controlled study. Indian J Med Sci. 2007;61(6):347-55.
46. Mathew S, Kuttan G, Immunomodulatory and antitumour activities of Tinospora cordifolia. Fitoterapia. 1999;70(1):35–43.
47. Bishayi B et al, Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of Tinospora cordifolia in CCl4 intoxicated mature albino rats. J Toxicol Sci. 2002;27(3):139-46.
48. Leyon PV, Kuttan G, Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on the cytokine profile of angiogenesisinduced animals. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004;4(13):1569-75.
49. Leyon PV, Kuttan G, Inhibitory effect of a polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia on experimental metastasis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;90(2-3):233-7.
50. Mishra R, Kaur G, Aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia as a potential candidate for differentiation based therapy of glioblastomas. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e78764.
51. Shilpa P, Balaraju Y, Salimath BP, Antimetastatic activity of Tinospora Cordifolia involves inhibition of cell migration and invasion regulated By Twist and Snail genes. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2015; 10(2 Ver. 1):44-49.
52. Patgiri B et al, Anti-inflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana (aqueous extract of Tinospora Cordifolia Miers.). Ayu. 2014 ; 35(1): 108–110.
53. Stanely Mainzen Prince P, Menon VP, Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic action of alcohol extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots in chemical induced diabetes in rats. Phytother Res. 2003;17(4):410-3.
54. Mukherjee R, De UK, Ram GC, Evaluation of mammary gland immunity and therapeutic potential of Tinospora cordifolia against bovine subclinical mastitis. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42(4):645-51.
55. Grover JK, Vats V, Rathi SS, Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Eugenia jambolana and Tinospora cordifolia in experimental diabetes and their effects on key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;73(3):461-70.
56. Rawal AK, Muddeshwar MG, Biswas SK, Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn and Tinospora cordifolia exert neuroprotection by modulating the antioxidant system in rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2004;4:11.
57. Singh N, Singh SM, Shrivastava P, Immunomodulatory and antitumor actions of medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia are mediated through activation of tumor-associated macrophages. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2004;26(1):145-62.
58. Premanath R, Lakshmidevi N, Studies on anti-oxidant activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Miers.) Leaves using in vitro models. Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):736-743.
59. Prince PS, Menon VP, Antioxidant activity of Tinospora cordifolia roots in experimental diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;65(3):277-81.
60. Upadhyay N et al, Free radical scavenging activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2014; 3 (2):63-69.
61. Badar VA et al, Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia in allergic rhinitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;96(3):445-9.
62. Rao PR et al, Cardioprotective activity of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia in ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial infarction in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005;28(12):2319-22.
63. Rege N et al, Immunotherapy with Tinospora cordifolia: a new lead in the management of obstructive jaundice. Indian J Gastroenterol. 1993;12(1):5-8.
64. Sannegowda KM, Venkatesha SH, Moudgil KD, Tinospora cordifolia inhibits autoimmune arthritis by regulating key immune mediators of inflammation and bone damage. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2015;28(4):521-31.
65. Sharma V, Pandey D, Protective Role of Tinospora cordifolia against Lead-induced Hepatotoxicity. Toxicol Int. 2010;17(1):12-7.
66. Choudhary N, Siddiqui MB, Khatoon S, Pharmacognostic evaluation of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers and identification of biomarkers. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. 2014;13(3):543-550.
67. Dwivedi R et al, Qualitative estimation of phytoconstituents and in vitro antioxidant potential of Tinospora cordifolia stem extract. International Journal of Biological & Pharmaceutical Research. 2014; 5(2): 114-119.
68. Goel B et al, Clinical evaluation of analgesic activity of Guduchi (Tinospora Cordifolia) using animal model. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8(8):HC01-4
69. Kumar A, Structure elucidation of Maksiterone-A from methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia and used as antidepressant agent. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2014;6(11):744-749.
70. Rao SK, Rao PS, Rao BN, Preliminary investigation of the radiosensitizing activity of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in ttumor-bearing mice. Phytother. Res. 2008;22:1482–1489.
71. Jagetia GC, Rao SK, The Indian medicinal plant Giloe (Tinospora cordifolia) induces cytotoxic effects by damaging cellular DNA in HeLa cells: A Comet assay study. Trends in Green Chemistry. 2015;1(1:6):1-9.
72. Rao SK, Rao PS, Alteration in the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells by Dichloromethane extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia). Integrative Cancer Therapies 2010; 9(4): 378–384.
73. Singh L et al, Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on Gamma ray-induced perturbations in macrophages and splenocytes. J. Radiat. Res.2007; 48(4): 305–315.
74. Sharma R, In vivo delivery of Tinospora cordifolia root extract preventing radiation-induced dystrophies in mice ovaries. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2015, Article ID 346427, 7 pages.
75. Ashok BK et al, Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats. Pharmacological Research. 2010;31(3):367-370.
76. Jagetia GC, Nayak V, Vidyasagar MS, Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in cultured HeLa cells. Cancer Lett. 1998;127(1-2):71-82.