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Syzygium cumini

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Name: Syzygium cumini
Synonyms/Scientific names:Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels[1],[2]
Eugenia jambolana Lam.[3], Myrtus cumini Linn., Syzygium jambolana DC., Syzygium jambolanum (Lam.) DC., Eugenia djouant Perr., Calyptranthes jambolana Willd., Eugenia cumini (Linn.) Druce. and Eugenia caryophyllifolia Lam.[2],[4]
Synonyms/common names :
Black Plum/Jamun[3],jambolan, black plum, jamun, java plum, Indian blackberry, Portuguese plum, Malabar plum, purple plum, Jamaica and damson plum[1],[2]
Trade name:
Description: Family :Myrtaceae[1],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9]
A moderately fast emergent tropical evergreen tree[9],indigenous to the Indian subcontinent[6]
Extract used: seed:
ethanolic extract[10]
chloroform fraction[11]
Aqueous extract[12]
ethyl acetate and methanol extract[13],[14]
hydroalcoholic extract[15], used for radioprotection study[16],[17]
Petroleum ether[14]
hydroalcoholic extract[18]
ethanol extract[19]
Petroleum ether, Ethyl acetate, Methanol extract[14]
methanolic extract and its water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-hexane fractions[20]
polyphenols and triterpenes such as arjunolic acid, asiatic acid, terminolic acid, 6-hydroxyasiatic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid[21]
Stem bark:
petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extract[22],[23]
ethanolic extract[24]
aqueous extract[25]
root bark:
ethanolic extract, petroleum ether fraction, chloroform fraction, n-butanol fraction and methanol fraction[26]
Myricetin, quercetin, kaempherol, Betulinic acid, Delphinidin, Anthocyanin, Malvidin, Petulidin, Ellagic acid, gallic acid, 1, 8-Cineole, β-sitosterol, malieic acid, oxalic acid, gallic acid, tannins, cynidin glycoside, oleanolic acid, flavonoids, friedelin[3],[9]
116 kDa arabinogalactan containing pcoumaric and ferulic acids in monomeric and dimeric forms has been isolated[27]
3-O-(4″-O-acetyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside of mearnsetin (myricetin 4′-methyl ether) and myricetin 3-O-(4″-O-acetyl-2″-O-galloyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside[28],[29]
phenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid and catechin[20]
myricetin 3-O-(4″-acetyl)-α-Lrhamnopyranoside[30]
anthocyanins, vitamins, phenolics or tannins[31],[32],[33]
anthocyanins : 3,5-diglucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin[34],[29]
Hydrolysable tannins were identified as ellagitannins, consisting of a glucose core surrounded by gallic acid and ellagic acid units[35]
tannins, saponin, triterpenoids[13]
gallotannins, jamutannins A and B and an ellagitannin, iso-oenothein C[36]
gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin and related ellagitannins, 3,6–hexahydroxydiphenoyl-glucose and its isomer, 4,6–hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucose, 1–galloyl glucose, 3–galloyl glucose and quercetin in seeds[37]
Roots, stem and bark:
partially methylated derivatives of ellagic acid i.e. 3,3'-di–O–methyl ellagic acid and 3,3', 4–tri–O–methyl ellagic acid in bark and seeds[37]
β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and lupeol from root bark[26]
Bergenin from stem bark[23]
& Indications:
Pharmcological Action-
hepatoprotective in mice[31],in rats[39],[18][40],[41] in rats in vitro[42]
Antidiabetic and antiulcer effects of seed extract in rats[43]
gastro-protective in rats[10],[38]
anti-inflammatory and antipyretic[11]
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in rats[22],[19],[13],[26]
antinociceptive in rats[26]
Anti-hyperglycemic effect in animals[44]
anti-atherogenic in rats[49]
anticonvulsant actions in mice[15]
antioxidant [45], in vitro[14]
anticancer in vitro(fruit extract)[46]
Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic in rabbits[47]
Therapeutic indications:
Traditionally, it is used in treatment of diabetes mellitus, inflammation, ulcers and diarrhea[3]
Preclinical study-
preclinical studies have also shown it to possess antineoplastic, chemopreventive and radioprotective properties[3]
Seed extract is suggested to be effective in treating gastric ulcers co-ocurring with diabets in a study with rats in vivo[43]
Eugenia jambolana have been demonstrated to be useful in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus associated with ischemic heart disease[48]
1. Syzygium cumini; In : Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 3, Fruits, by Lim TK, Springer, 2012, page no. 745-759.
2. Ayyanar M, Subash-Babu P, Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels: A review of its phytochemical constituents and traditional uses. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012; 2(3): 240–246.
3. Baliga MS, Anticancer, chemopreventive and radioprotective potential of Black Plum (Eugenia Jambolana Lam.). Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 2011; 12: 3-15.
4. Katiyar D, Singh V, Ali M, Recent advances in pharmacological potential of Syzygium cumini: A review. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 2016; 7(4):1-12.
5. Ahmed F, Chandra JNNS, Timmaiah NV, An In vitro study on the inhibitory activities of Eugenia jambolana seeds against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. J Young Pharm. 2009; 1 (4):327-331.
6. Chapter 24: Gastrointestinal protective effects of Eugenia jambolana Lam.(Black plum) and its phytochemicals by Pai RJ et al; In : Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Liver and Gastrointestinal by Watson RR, Preedy VR, Elsevier, 2013, page no. 369-379.
7. Sah AK, Verma VK, Syzygium cumini : An overview. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 2011; 3(3):108-113.
8. Baliga MS et al, Phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (black plum): A review. Food Research International 2011;44(7):1776–1789.
9. Ramya S, Neethirajan K, Jayakumararaj R, Profile of bioactive compounds in Syzygium cumini – a review. Journal of Pharmacy Research 2012;5(8):4548-4553.
10. Chaturvedi A et al, Effect of ethanolic extract of Eugenia jambolana seeds on gastric ulceration and secretion in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;51(2):131-40.
11. Choudhuri AKN et al, Anti-inflammatory and related actions of Syzygium cuminii seed extract. Phytother. Res. 1990; 4: 5–10.
12. David E et al, Eugenia jambolana seed extract inhibit uptake of glucose across rat everted gut sacs in vitro. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Devlopement. 2010;2(9):107-112.
13. Kumar A et al, Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini seed. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2008; 7 (8):941-943.
14. Nair LK, Begum M, Geetha S, In vitro-Antioxidant activity of the seed and leaf extracts of syzygium cumini. IOSR Journal Of Environmental Science, Toxicology And Food Technology. 2013;7(1):54-62.
15. De Lima TCM et al, Behavioural effects of crude and semi-purified extracts of Syzygium cuminii linn. skeels. Phytother. Res. 1998;12(7):488–493.
16. Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, Venkatesh P, Influence of seed extract of Syzygium Cumini (Jamun) on mice exposed to different doses of γ -radiation. J. Radiat. Res. 2005; 46(1): 59–65.
17. Sharma A, Soyal D, Goyal PK, Radioprotection by seed extract of Syzygium cumini in normal tissues of fibrosarcoma bearing mice. Indian Society for Radiation Biology, Delhi (India); K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore (India); 90 p; Oct 2013; p. 61; ICRB-2013: international conference on radiation biology and clinical applications; Mangalore (India); 25-27 Oct 2013.
18. Donya SM, Ibrahim NH, Antimutagenic Potential of Cynara scolymus, Cupressus sempervirens and Eugenia jambolana Against paracetamol-induced liver cytotoxicity. Journal of American Science. 2012; 8(1):61-67.
19. Kota PK et al, Anti-inflammatory activity of Eugenia jambolana in albino rats. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences . 2010;1(4):435-438.
20. Ruan ZP, Zhang LL, Lin YM, Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaves. Molecules. 2008; 13: 2545-2556.
21. Gupta GS, Sharma DP, Triterpenoid and other constituents of Eugenia jambolana leaves. Phytochemistry 1974;13:2013-2014.
22. Hegde SV, Yarappa RL, Rai PS, Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of stem bark extracts of Eugenia jambolana. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2011; 2(3): 202–204.
23. Sariga CD, Shakila R, Kothai S, Isolation, characterization and quantification of Bergenin from Syzygium cumini stem bark. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2015;6(2):108-110.
24. Muruganandan S et al, Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini bark. Fitoterapia. 2001;72(4):369-75.
25. Yele SU, Veeranjaneyulu A, Toxicological assessments of aqueous extract of Eugenia jambolana stem bark. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2010; 48(8): 849–854.
26. Saha S et al, Evaluation of antinociceptive and anti- inflammatory activities of extract and fractions of Eugenia jambolana root bark and isolation of phytoconstituents. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy. 2013; 23(4): 651-661.
27. Bandopadhyay SS et al, Structure, fluorescence quenching and antioxidant activity of a carbohydrate polymer from Eugenia jambolana. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2012;51(1-2):58–164.
28. Mahmoud II et al, Acylated flavonol glycosides from Eugenia jambolana leaves. Phytochemistry 2001;58(8):1239–1244.
29. Silva DHS et al, Antioxidants from fruits and leaves of Eugenia jambolana, an edible Myrtaceae species from Atlantic Forest. Planta Med 2006; 72:187
30. Timbola AK et al, A new flavonol from leaves of Eugenia jambolana. Fitoterapia 2002;72(2):174–176.
31. Donepudi AC et al, The traditional ayurvedic medicine, Eugenia jambolana (Jamun fruit), decreases liver inflammation, injury and fibrosis during cholestasis. Liver International. 2012;32(4):560-573.
32. Banerjee A, Dasgupta N, De B, In vitro study of antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini fruit. Food Chemistry. 2005;90(4):727–733.
33. Benherlal PS, Arumughan C, Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant studies on Syzygium cumini fruit. J Sci Food Agric. 2007;87(14):2560-9.
34. Li L, Zhang Y, Seeram NP, Structure of anthocyanins from Eugenia jambolana fruit. Nat Prod Commun. 2009;4(2):217-9.
35. Zhang LL, Lin YM, Antioxidant tannins from Syzygium cumini fruit. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2009;8 (10):2301-2309.
36. Omar R et al, α-Glucosidase inhibitory hydrolyzable tannins from Eugenia jambolana seeds. J. Nat. Prod. 2012; 75: 1505−1509.
37. Bhatia IS, Bajaj KL, Chemical constituents of the seeds and bark of Syzygium cumini. Planta Med 1975; 28(8): 346-352.
38. Ramirez RO, Roa CC Jr, The gastroprotective effect of tannins extracted from duhat (Syzygium cumini Skeels) bark on HCl/ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2003;29(3-4):253-61.
39. Das S, Sarma G, Study of the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of the pulp of Eugenia jambolana (Jamun) in Albino rats. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2009;3(2):1466-1474.
40. Sisodia SS, Bhatnagar M, Hepatoprotective activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2009; 41(1): 23–27.
41. Sudeep HV, Ramachandra YL, Rai SP, Investigation of in vitro, in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Eugenia jambolana Lam. stem bark. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2011;4(11):4167-4171.
42. Veigas JM, Shrivasthava R, Neelwarne B, Efficient amelioration of carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes by Syzygium cumini Skeels extract. Toxicol In Vitro. 2008;22(6):1440-6.
43. Chaturvedi A et al, Ulcer healing properties of ethanolic extract of Eugenia jambolana seed in diabetic rats: study on gastric mucosal defensive factors. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;53(1):16-24.
44. Grover JK, Vats V, Rathi SS, Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Eugenia jambolana and Tinospora cordifolia in experimental diabetes and their effects on key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 ;73(3):461-70.
45. Ravi K, Ramachandran B, Subramanian S, Protective effect of Eugenia jambolana seed kernel on tissue antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004;27(8):1212-7.
46. Charepalli V et al, Eugenia jambolana (Java Plum) fruit extract exhibits anti-cancer activity against early stage human HCT-116 Colon Cancer Cells and Colon Cancer Stem Cells. Cancers (Basel). 2016;8(3): pii: E29.
47. Sharma SB et al, Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Eugenia jambolana in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;85(2-3):201-6.
48. Dwivedi S, Aggarwal A, Indigenous drugs in ischemic heart disease in patients with diabetes. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15(11):1215-21.
49. Jadeja RN et al, Standardized flavonoid-rich Eugenia jambolana seed extract retards in vitro and in vivo LDL oxidation and expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin in atherogenic rats. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2012;12(1):73-82.