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Syzygium cumini

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GENERAL FEATURES

Name: Syzygium cumini
Synonyms/Scientific names:Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels[1],[2]
Eugenia jambolana Lam.[3], Myrtus cumini Linn., Syzygium jambolana DC., Syzygium jambolanum (Lam.) DC., Eugenia djouant Perr., Calyptranthes jambolana Willd., Eugenia cumini (Linn.) Druce. and Eugenia caryophyllifolia Lam.[2],[4]
Synonyms/common names :
Black Plum/Jamun[3],jambolan, black plum, jamun, java plum, Indian blackberry, Portuguese plum, Malabar plum, purple plum, Jamaica and damson plum[1],[2]
Trade name:
Description: Family :Myrtaceae[1],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9]
A moderately fast emergent tropical evergreen tree[9],indigenous to the Indian subcontinent[6]
Extract used: seed:
ethanolic extract[10]
chloroform fraction[11]
Aqueous extract[12]
ethyl acetate and methanol extract[13],[14]
hydroalcoholic extract[15], used for radioprotection study[16],[17]
Petroleum ether[14]
Leaves:
hydroalcoholic extract[18]
ethanol extract[19]
Petroleum ether, Ethyl acetate, Methanol extract[14]
methanolic extract and its water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-hexane fractions[20]
polyphenols and triterpenes such as arjunolic acid, asiatic acid, terminolic acid, 6-hydroxyasiatic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid[21]
Stem bark:
petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extract[22],[23]
ethanolic extract[24]
aqueous extract[25]
root bark:
ethanolic extract, petroleum ether fraction, chloroform fraction, n-butanol fraction and methanol fraction[26]
Phyto-constituents
(active):
Myricetin, quercetin, kaempherol, Betulinic acid, Delphinidin, Anthocyanin, Malvidin, Petulidin, Ellagic acid, gallic acid, 1, 8-Cineole, β-sitosterol, malieic acid, oxalic acid, gallic acid, tannins, cynidin glycoside, oleanolic acid, flavonoids, friedelin[3],[9]
116 kDa arabinogalactan containing pcoumaric and ferulic acids in monomeric and dimeric forms has been isolated[27]
Leaves:
3-O-(4″-O-acetyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside of mearnsetin (myricetin 4′-methyl ether) and myricetin 3-O-(4″-O-acetyl-2″-O-galloyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside[28],[29]
phenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid and catechin[20]
myricetin 3-O-(4″-acetyl)-α-Lrhamnopyranoside[30]
Fruit:
anthocyanins, vitamins, phenolics or tannins[31],[32],[33]
anthocyanins : 3,5-diglucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin[34],[29]
Hydrolysable tannins were identified as ellagitannins, consisting of a glucose core surrounded by gallic acid and ellagic acid units[35]
Seeds
tannins, saponin, triterpenoids[13]
gallotannins, jamutannins A and B and an ellagitannin, iso-oenothein C[36]
gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin and related ellagitannins, 3,6–hexahydroxydiphenoyl-glucose and its isomer, 4,6–hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucose, 1–galloyl glucose, 3–galloyl glucose and quercetin in seeds[37]
Roots, stem and bark:
partially methylated derivatives of ellagic acid i.e. 3,3'-di–O–methyl ellagic acid and 3,3', 4–tri–O–methyl ellagic acid in bark and seeds[37]
tannins[38]
β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and lupeol from root bark[26]
Bergenin from stem bark[23]
Actions
& Indications:
Pharmcological Action-
hepatoprotective in mice[31],in rats[39],[18][40],[41] in rats in vitro[42]
Antidiabetic and antiulcer effects of seed extract in rats[43]
gastro-protective in rats[10],[38]
anti-inflammatory and antipyretic[11]
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in rats[22],[19],[13],[26]
antinociceptive in rats[26]
Anti-hyperglycemic effect in animals[44]
anti-atherogenic in rats[49]
anticonvulsant actions in mice[15]
antioxidant [45], in vitro[14]
anticancer in vitro(fruit extract)[46]
Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic in rabbits[47]
Therapeutic indications:
Traditionally, it is used in treatment of diabetes mellitus, inflammation, ulcers and diarrhea[3]
Preclinical study-
preclinical studies have also shown it to possess antineoplastic, chemopreventive and radioprotective properties[3]
Seed extract is suggested to be effective in treating gastric ulcers co-ocurring with diabets in a study with rats in vivo[43]
Eugenia jambolana have been demonstrated to be useful in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus associated with ischemic heart disease[48]
Notes:
REFERENCES
1. Syzygium cumini; In : Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 3, Fruits, by Lim TK, Springer, 2012, page no. 745-759.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2534-8_100
2. Ayyanar M, Subash-Babu P, Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels: A review of its phytochemical constituents and traditional uses. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012; 2(3): 240–246.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60050-1
3. Baliga MS, Anticancer, chemopreventive and radioprotective potential of Black Plum (Eugenia Jambolana Lam.). Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 2011; 12: 3-15.
http://www.apocpcontrol.net/paper_file/issue_abs/Volume12_No1/3-15%20b%2012.10%20Manjeshwar%20Shrinath%20Baliga.pdf
4. Katiyar D, Singh V, Ali M, Recent advances in pharmacological potential of Syzygium cumini: A review. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 2016; 7(4):1-12.
http://pelagiaresearchlibrary.com/advances-in-applied-science/vol7-iss3/AASR-2016-7-3-1-12.pdf
5. Ahmed F, Chandra JNNS, Timmaiah NV, An In vitro study on the inhibitory activities of Eugenia jambolana seeds against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. J Young Pharm. 2009; 1 (4):327-331.
http://www.jyoungpharm.org/article/407
6. Chapter 24: Gastrointestinal protective effects of Eugenia jambolana Lam.(Black plum) and its phytochemicals by Pai RJ et al; In : Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Liver and Gastrointestinal by Watson RR, Preedy VR, Elsevier, 2013, page no. 369-379.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=QXGIFGVpeXMC&pg=PA369
7. Sah AK, Verma VK, Syzygium cumini : An overview. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 2011; 3(3):108-113.
http://jocpr.com/vol3-iss3-2011/JCPR-2011-3-3-108-113.pdf
8. Baliga MS et al, Phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (black plum): A review. Food Research International 2011;44(7):1776–1789.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.02.007
9. Ramya S, Neethirajan K, Jayakumararaj R, Profile of bioactive compounds in Syzygium cumini – a review. Journal of Pharmacy Research 2012;5(8):4548-4553.
http://jprsolutions.info/newfiles/journal-file-56c55c1c189cf6.56980743.pdf
10. Chaturvedi A et al, Effect of ethanolic extract of Eugenia jambolana seeds on gastric ulceration and secretion in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;51(2):131-40.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18175656
11. Choudhuri AKN et al, Anti-inflammatory and related actions of Syzygium cuminii seed extract. Phytother. Res. 1990; 4: 5–10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2650040103
12. David E et al, Eugenia jambolana seed extract inhibit uptake of glucose across rat everted gut sacs in vitro. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Devlopement. 2010;2(9):107-112.
http://www.oalib.com/paper/2735912#.V7QsA00rLIU
13. Kumar A et al, Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini seed. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2008; 7 (8):941-943.
http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/viewFile/58581/46923
14. Nair LK, Begum M, Geetha S, In vitro-Antioxidant activity of the seed and leaf extracts of syzygium cumini. IOSR Journal Of Environmental Science, Toxicology And Food Technology. 2013;7(1):54-62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.9790/2402-0715462
15. De Lima TCM et al, Behavioural effects of crude and semi-purified extracts of Syzygium cuminii linn. skeels. Phytother. Res. 1998;12(7):488–493.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199811)12:7<488::AID-PTR344>3.0.CO;2-0
16. Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, Venkatesh P, Influence of seed extract of Syzygium Cumini (Jamun) on mice exposed to different doses of γ -radiation. J. Radiat. Res. 2005; 46(1): 59–65.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1269/jrr.46.59
17. Sharma A, Soyal D, Goyal PK, Radioprotection by seed extract of Syzygium cumini in normal tissues of fibrosarcoma bearing mice. Indian Society for Radiation Biology, Delhi (India); K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore (India); 90 p; Oct 2013; p. 61; ICRB-2013: international conference on radiation biology and clinical applications; Mangalore (India); 25-27 Oct 2013.
https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45108336
18. Donya SM, Ibrahim NH, Antimutagenic Potential of Cynara scolymus, Cupressus sempervirens and Eugenia jambolana Against paracetamol-induced liver cytotoxicity. Journal of American Science. 2012; 8(1):61-67.
http://www.jofamericanscience.org/journals/am-sci/am0801/009_7679am0801_61_67.pdf
19. Kota PK et al, Anti-inflammatory activity of Eugenia jambolana in albino rats. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences . 2010;1(4):435-438.
http://www.ijpbs.net/issue-4/Ph-51.pdf
20. Ruan ZP, Zhang LL, Lin YM, Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaves. Molecules. 2008; 13: 2545-2556.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules13102545
21. Gupta GS, Sharma DP, Triterpenoid and other constituents of Eugenia jambolana leaves. Phytochemistry 1974;13:2013-2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(74)85151-4
22. Hegde SV, Yarappa RL, Rai PS, Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of stem bark extracts of Eugenia jambolana. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2011; 2(3): 202–204.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0976-500X.83294
23. Sariga CD, Shakila R, Kothai S, Isolation, characterization and quantification of Bergenin from Syzygium cumini stem bark. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2015;6(2):108-110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7897/2230-8407.06225
24. Muruganandan S et al, Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini bark. Fitoterapia. 2001;72(4):369-75.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00325-7
25. Yele SU, Veeranjaneyulu A, Toxicological assessments of aqueous extract of Eugenia jambolana stem bark. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2010; 48(8): 849–854.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880200903300204
26. Saha S et al, Evaluation of antinociceptive and anti- inflammatory activities of extract and fractions of Eugenia jambolana root bark and isolation of phytoconstituents. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy. 2013; 23(4): 651-661.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2013005000055
27. Bandopadhyay SS et al, Structure, fluorescence quenching and antioxidant activity of a carbohydrate polymer from Eugenia jambolana. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2012;51(1-2):58–164.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2012.04.004
28. Mahmoud II et al, Acylated flavonol glycosides from Eugenia jambolana leaves. Phytochemistry 2001;58(8):1239–1244.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00365-X
29. Silva DHS et al, Antioxidants from fruits and leaves of Eugenia jambolana, an edible Myrtaceae species from Atlantic Forest. Planta Med 2006; 72:187
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-949987
30. Timbola AK et al, A new flavonol from leaves of Eugenia jambolana. Fitoterapia 2002;72(2):174–176.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00009-6
31. Donepudi AC et al, The traditional ayurvedic medicine, Eugenia jambolana (Jamun fruit), decreases liver inflammation, injury and fibrosis during cholestasis. Liver International. 2012;32(4):560-573.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-3231.2011.02724.x
32. Banerjee A, Dasgupta N, De B, In vitro study of antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini fruit. Food Chemistry. 2005;90(4):727–733.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.04.033
33. Benherlal PS, Arumughan C, Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant studies on Syzygium cumini fruit. J Sci Food Agric. 2007;87(14):2560-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2957
34. Li L, Zhang Y, Seeram NP, Structure of anthocyanins from Eugenia jambolana fruit. Nat Prod Commun. 2009;4(2):217-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19370926
35. Zhang LL, Lin YM, Antioxidant tannins from Syzygium cumini fruit. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2009;8 (10):2301-2309.
http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/60578
36. Omar R et al, α-Glucosidase inhibitory hydrolyzable tannins from Eugenia jambolana seeds. J. Nat. Prod. 2012; 75: 1505−1509.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np300417q
37. Bhatia IS, Bajaj KL, Chemical constituents of the seeds and bark of Syzygium cumini. Planta Med 1975; 28(8): 346-352.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1097868
38. Ramirez RO, Roa CC Jr, The gastroprotective effect of tannins extracted from duhat (Syzygium cumini Skeels) bark on HCl/ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2003;29(3-4):253-61.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14724349
39. Das S, Sarma G, Study of the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of the pulp of Eugenia jambolana (Jamun) in Albino rats. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2009;3(2):1466-1474.
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.576.342
40. Sisodia SS, Bhatnagar M, Hepatoprotective activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2009; 41(1): 23–27.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.48888
41. Sudeep HV, Ramachandra YL, Rai SP, Investigation of in vitro, in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Eugenia jambolana Lam. stem bark. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2011;4(11):4167-4171.
http://eprints.manipal.edu/139858/
42. Veigas JM, Shrivasthava R, Neelwarne B, Efficient amelioration of carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes by Syzygium cumini Skeels extract. Toxicol In Vitro. 2008;22(6):1440-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2008.04.015
43. Chaturvedi A et al, Ulcer healing properties of ethanolic extract of Eugenia jambolana seed in diabetic rats: study on gastric mucosal defensive factors. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;53(1):16-24.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19810572
44. Grover JK, Vats V, Rathi SS, Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Eugenia jambolana and Tinospora cordifolia in experimental diabetes and their effects on key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 ;73(3):461-70.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00319-6
45. Ravi K, Ramachandran B, Subramanian S, Protective effect of Eugenia jambolana seed kernel on tissue antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004;27(8):1212-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15305024
46. Charepalli V et al, Eugenia jambolana (Java Plum) fruit extract exhibits anti-cancer activity against early stage human HCT-116 Colon Cancer Cells and Colon Cancer Stem Cells. Cancers (Basel). 2016;8(3): pii: E29.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers8030029
47. Sharma SB et al, Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Eugenia jambolana in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;85(2-3):201-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00366-5
48. Dwivedi S, Aggarwal A, Indigenous drugs in ischemic heart disease in patients with diabetes. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15(11):1215-21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2009.0187
49. Jadeja RN et al, Standardized flavonoid-rich Eugenia jambolana seed extract retards in vitro and in vivo LDL oxidation and expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin in atherogenic rats. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2012;12(1):73-82.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12012-011-9140-0