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Nicotinamide

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GENERAL FEATURES

Name: Nicotinamide
Generic Names: Vitamin B3; Niacinamide; Nicotilamide; Nicotinamide; 3-Pyridinecarboxamide; 3-Carbamoylpyridine; Pyridine-3-carboxamide; β-Pyridinecarboxamide ; NAM; Nicotine acid Amide; Nicotinic Acid Amide; Pyridine,3-Carbomyl-; Vi-Nicotyl; 3-Carbomyl Pyridine; 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid amide; [1]
Trade names: Dipegyl; Nicofort; Niozymin; Aminicotin; Nicamindon Nicosan 2; Benicot; Delonin Amide; Niavit PP; Vitamin PP; Amide PP; Nicamina; Nicasir; Nicobion; Nicosyl Amide; Pelmine; Amixicotyn; Austrovit PP; Endobion; Factor PP; Hansamid; Inovitan PP; Niamide; Nicamide; Nicogen; Nicozymin; Nicovitol; Nicovel; Nicomidol; Nicota; Pelonin Amide; Nicovitina; Nicozymin;[1]
IUPAC name: Pyridine-3-carboxamide[1]
Molecular Formula: C6H7N2O[1]
Molecular Weight: 122.12464 [g/mol] [1]
2D Structure: [2]
Functional Group: The structure consists of a pyridine ring with an amide group in position three.[1]
Chemical Nature: Freely soluble in water, in alcohol and soluble in Glycerene. Stable under normal temperatures and conditions. Niacinamide is incompatible with strong alkalis and strong acids and also with strong oxidizing agents. Burning may produce hazardous combustion gases like Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide[3]
Actions & Indications: Pharmcological Action-
Vitamin B complex - A group of water-soluble vitamins. [4]
Anxiolytic agent[5]
Antioxidant Action[6]
Reversal of HIV-induced metabolic abnormality by nicotinamide is reported[7]
Oral antimicrobial agent (In vivo anti-M. tuberculosis activity is reported)[8]
Therapeutic use -
Nicotinamide acts as a specific antidote for Vacor(PNU) rodenticide poisoning[9]
Niacinamide is used to prevent and treat niacin/Vitamin B3 deficiency states[10][11]and to treat pellagra.[6]
Niacinamide has been used successfully to prevent or delay the onset of type 1 diabetes among high-risk individuals.[4]
REFERENCES
1. NIST chemistry webbook
http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?Name=nicotinamide
2. Niacin; In: Vitamin tolerance of animals, Subcommittee on vitamin tolerance, National Academic Press, Washington, 1987, page no.49.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=MmUrAAAAYAAJ
3. 0014A00 Div.02 sds Niacinamide, Safety data sheet as per Globally Harmonized System(GHS), Jubilant Life Sciences limited, page no. 3-15.
http://www.jubl.com/uploads/files/183msds_sds-niacinamide.pdf
4. Niacinamide Monograph, Alternative Medicine Review, 2002;7(6): 525-529.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12495377
5. Akhundov RA, Sultanov AA, Gadzhily RA, Sadykhov RV, Psychoregulating role of nicotinamide, Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1993 May;115(5):487-91.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00784180
6. Otte N, Borelli C, Korting HC, Nicotinamide-Biologic actions of an emerging cosmetic ingredients, Int J Cosmet Sci, 2005;27(5):255-61.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2494.2005.00266.x
7. Murray MF, Langan M, MacGregor RR, Increased plasma tryptophan in HIV-infected patients treated with pharmacologic doses of nicotinamide, Nutrition, 2001;17(7-8):654-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0899-9007(01)00568-8
8. Murray MF, Nicotinamide: An oral antimicrobial agent with activity against both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus, Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2003;36: 453-460.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/367544
9. Niacin and Niacinamide, Vitamin, Antidotes; In : Color Atlas of Human Poisoning and Envenoming by James H Diaz, Page 72.
https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1466505400
10. Hathcock John, Niacin: Nicotinic Acid, Nicotinamide, and Inositol Hexanicotinate; In: Vitamin and Mineral safety 3rd edition by John Hathcock, Published by Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), Washington, D.C., 2014, Page no.67.
http://www.crnusa.org/safety/CRN-SafetyBook-3rdEdition-2014-fullbook.pdf
11. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; Screening Information Data Set for 3-Pyridinecarboxamide (Nicotinamide) CAS #: 98-92-0 p.6 (2002). Available from, as of February 20, 2007.
http://www.inchem.org/pages/sids.html