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Melatonin

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General Features                  Clinical Study                  Chemical Intervention                 Pharmacological Aspects                 
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GENERAL FEATURES

Name: Melatonin
Synonyms:
Trade name:
Chemical name: N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine
5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine
3-(2-Acetylamino-ethyl)-5-methoxyindole[1]

IUPAC name :
N-(2-(5-Methoxyindol-3-yl)ethyl acetamide[1]
Molecular Weight: 232.3 g/mol[1],[9]
Source:
Structure: [1]
Chemical Nature:
Actions
& Indications:
Pharmcological Action-
Therapeutic indications:
Melatonin is found to be effective in a clinical trial for the treatment of severe circadian rhythm sleep disorder in handicapped children.[2]
melatonin is suggested to be promising agaent in treatment of cluster headache, migraine.[3], also shown to be effective in patients with headache who are suffering from delayed sleep phase syndrome.[4]
Efficacy of melatonin in patients with tardive dyskinesia has been established in a clinical setting.[5]
Preclinical study:
melatonin treatment is suggested to be used in the therapy of immunodepressive conditions.[6]
Cellular Functions: Melatonin is suggested to be complementary in function to catalase and glutathione peroxidase in keeping intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels.[7]
Melatonin causes NADPH2-dependent enzymatic neutralization of hydrogen peroxide via the activation of the pentose pathway, which constitute a major and diversified metabolic role for melatonin.[8]
REFERENCES
1. 24. Melatonin ; In : Active Ingredients Used in Cosmetics: Safety Survey edited by Council of Europe. Committee of Experts on Cosmetic Products, Council of Europe, 2008, page no. 219.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=tWJLUWT06BEC&pg=PA219
2. Jan MM, Melatonin for the treatment of handicapped children with severe sleep disorders. Pediatr Neurol. 2000 ;23(3):229-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0887-8994(00)00188-0
3. Peres MF et al, Potential therapeutic use of melatonin in migraine and other headache disorders. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2006;15(4):367-75.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/13543784.15.4.367
4. Nagtegaal JE et al, Melatonin-responsive headache in delayed sleep phase syndrome: preliminary observations. Headache. 1998;38(4):303-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1526-4610.1998.3804303.x
5. Shamir E et al, Melatonin treatment for tardive dyskinesia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(11):1049-52.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.58.11.1049
6. Caroleo MC et al, Melatonin as immunomodulator in immunodeficient mice. Immunopharmacology. 1992;23(2):81-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1534792
7. Tan DX et al, Melatonin directly scavenges hydrogen peroxide: a potentially new metabolic pathway of melatonin biotransformation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000;29(11):1177-85.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(00)00435-4
8. Pierrefiche G, Laborit H, Oxygen free radicals, melatonin, and aging. Exp Gerontol. 1995;30(3-4):213-27.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0531-5565(94)00036-3
9. Kim JK, Lee CJ, Effect of exogenous melatonin on the ovarian follicles in gamma-irradiated mouse. Mutation Research 2000;449: 33–39.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0027-5107(00)00027-0