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Name: Melatonin
Trade name:
Chemical name: N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine

IUPAC name :
N-(2-(5-Methoxyindol-3-yl)ethyl acetamide[1]
Molecular Weight: 232.3 g/mol[1],[9]
Structure: [1]
Chemical Nature:
& Indications:
Pharmcological Action-
Therapeutic indications:
Melatonin is found to be effective in a clinical trial for the treatment of severe circadian rhythm sleep disorder in handicapped children.[2]
melatonin is suggested to be promising agaent in treatment of cluster headache, migraine.[3], also shown to be effective in patients with headache who are suffering from delayed sleep phase syndrome.[4]
Efficacy of melatonin in patients with tardive dyskinesia has been established in a clinical setting.[5]
Preclinical study:
melatonin treatment is suggested to be used in the therapy of immunodepressive conditions.[6]
Cellular Functions: Melatonin is suggested to be complementary in function to catalase and glutathione peroxidase in keeping intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels.[7]
Melatonin causes NADPH2-dependent enzymatic neutralization of hydrogen peroxide via the activation of the pentose pathway, which constitute a major and diversified metabolic role for melatonin.[8]
1. 24. Melatonin ; In : Active Ingredients Used in Cosmetics: Safety Survey edited by Council of Europe. Committee of Experts on Cosmetic Products, Council of Europe, 2008, page no. 219.
2. Jan MM, Melatonin for the treatment of handicapped children with severe sleep disorders. Pediatr Neurol. 2000 ;23(3):229-32.
3. Peres MF et al, Potential therapeutic use of melatonin in migraine and other headache disorders. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2006;15(4):367-75.
4. Nagtegaal JE et al, Melatonin-responsive headache in delayed sleep phase syndrome: preliminary observations. Headache. 1998;38(4):303-7.
5. Shamir E et al, Melatonin treatment for tardive dyskinesia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(11):1049-52.
6. Caroleo MC et al, Melatonin as immunomodulator in immunodeficient mice. Immunopharmacology. 1992;23(2):81-9.
7. Tan DX et al, Melatonin directly scavenges hydrogen peroxide: a potentially new metabolic pathway of melatonin biotransformation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000;29(11):1177-85.
8. Pierrefiche G, Laborit H, Oxygen free radicals, melatonin, and aging. Exp Gerontol. 1995;30(3-4):213-27.
9. Kim JK, Lee CJ, Effect of exogenous melatonin on the ovarian follicles in gamma-irradiated mouse. Mutation Research 2000;449: 33–39.