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Emblica officinalis

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General Features                  Clinical Study                  Chemical Intervention                 Pharmacological Aspects                 
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GENERAL FEATURES

Name: Emblica officinalis
Synonyms/Scientific names: Emblica officinalis Gaertn.
Phyllanthus emblica L. [1],[2]
Synonyms/common names :
Amla, Amalaki[3],Indian gooseberry[1]
English name: Emblic, myrobalan[3]

Trade name:
AmlamaxTM[4]
Triphala : one of the constituents is "Amla" [5]
It is also a constituent of "Dhatriyadi Yoga"[21], and also of "Chyavanprash"[22]
Description: Family : Euphorbiaceae[2],[5]
Extract used: Fruit:
ethanol extract has been used for radioprotective study[6]
Phyto-constituents
(active):
gallic acid, ellagic acid, 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose, 3,6-di-O-galloyl-D-glucose, chebulinic acid, quercetin, chebulagic acid, corilagin, 3-ethylgallic acid (3-ethoxy-4,5-dihydroxy-benzoic acid) isostrictiniin, 1,6-di-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose[7]
ellagitannins: phyllanemblinins A-F[8]
Emblicanin A and B[9]
shoot and leaves
kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(6"-methyl)-rhamnopyranoside and kaempferol- 3-O-α-L-(6"-ethyl)-rhamnopyranoside[10]
Fruit:
Alkaloid, Flavone, Tannin[11]
ellagic acid, gallic acids, corilagin[12]
bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid[13]
gallic acid, mucic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin, rutin, and β-glucogallin[14]
vitamin C[2]
Actions
& Indications:
Pharmcological Action-
Anti-inflammatory in rats[15],[16]
hepatoprotective in animals[17]
Antinociceptive in diabetic rats[18]
anti-diabetic in animals[19]
antipyretic and analgesic in experimental rat model[20]
Therapeutic indications:
Traditionally, It is mild laxative, useful for heart, diuretic, rejuvenating agent, used in the treatment of liver disease, jaundice, gastric ulcer, gastritis, diabetes mellitus, bronchitis, asthma, menorrhagia, eczema, ehrumatism, arthritis[3]
Preclinical study-
In a clinical trial, Amla extract(AmlamaxTM) is suggested to prove to be effective in management of heart diseases[4]
Notes:
REFERENCES
1. 4.43 Phyllanthus emblica L. : Chapter 4 : Medicinal Fruit Tress of Southern Asia by Wiart C; In: Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement: Medicinal Plants, Volume 6, edited by Singh RJ, CRC press, 2011, Page no. 113.
https://books.google.com.sg/books?id=inqUIXNxU-oC&pg=PA113
2. 7.3 Fruits and Nuts : Chapter 7 : New plant-derived ingredients by Haq N, Technology of Reduced-Additive Foods edited by Smith J, Springer, 2012, Page no. 146.
https://books.google.com.sg/books?id=3eDTBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA146
3. Emblica officinalis : Part two: Herbal Remedies Medicines; In : Herbal Treatment for Heart Diseases by Vaidya Dash B, Jain Publishers, 2001, page no. 59.
https://books.google.com.sg/books?id=VP_dP3xocmYC&pg=PA59
4. Antony B, Benny M, Kaimal TN, A Pilot clinical study to evaluate the effect of Emblica officinalis extract (AmlamaxTM) on markers of systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia.Indian J Clin Biochem. 2008;23(4):378-81
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12291-008-0083-6
5. 17. Some Sacred Tress and their Medicinal Uses by Trivedi PC, Gupta G, Chaudhary S; In :Medicinal Plants: Traditional Knowledge edited by Trivedi PC, I. K. International Pvt Ltd, 2006, Page no. 245.
https://books.google.com.sg/books?id=9S6buRXrry8C&pg=PA245
6. Bhattacharya S et al, Radioprotective property of Emblica officinalis fruit ethanol extract. Pharmaceutical Biology 2006;44(9);682–690.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880200601009131
7. Zhang LZ et al, Studies on chemical constituents in fruits of Tibetan medicine Phyllanthus emblica. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 ;28(10):940-3.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15620182
8. Zhang YJ et al, Phyllanemblinins AF, new ellagitannins from Phyllanthus emblica. J Nat Prod. 2001;64(12):1527-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np010370g
9. Ghosal S, Tripathi VK, Chauhan S, Active constituents of Emblica officinalis. Part 1. The chemistry and antioxidative effects of two new hydrolysable tannins, Emblicanin A ( Ia) and B (Ib). ChemInform Abstracts; 1996;27(47):1.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chin.199647279
10. Habib-ur-Rehman et al, Studies on the chemical constituents of Phyllanthus emblica. Nat Prod Res. 2007;21(9):775-81.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786410601124664
11. Meena AK, Singh A, Rao MM, Evaluation of Physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2010;3(3):242-243.
http://www.ajpcr.com/Vol3Issue3/27.pdf
12. Poltanov EA et al, Chemical and antioxidant evaluation of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn., syn. Phyllanthus emblica L.) supplements. Phytother Res. 2009;23(9):1309-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2775
13. Zhang Y et al, Chemical constituents from Phyllanthus emblica and the cytoprotective effects on H2O2 induced PC12 cell injuries. Arch. Pharm. Res. 2014;1-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12272-014-0433-2
14. Middha SK et al, Toxicological evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit extract and its antiinflammatory and free radical scavenging properties. Pharmacogn Mag. 2015; 11(Suppl 3): S427–S433.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/09731296.168982
15. Dang GK et al, Antiinflammatory activity of Phyllanthus emblica, Plumbago zeylanica and Cyperus rotundus in acute models of inflammation. Phytother Res. 2011;25(6):904-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.3345
16. Golechha M et al, Anti-Inflammatory effect of Emblica officinalis in rodent models of acute and chronic inflammation: involvement of possible mechanisms. International Journal of Inflammation Volume 2014, Article ID 178408, 6 pages.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/178408
17. Gulati RK, Agarwal S, Agrawal SS, Hepatoprotective studies on Phyllanthus emblica Linn. and quercetin. Indian J Exp Biol. 1995;33(4):261-8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7558182
18. Kumar NP, Annamalai AR, Thakur RS, Antinociceptive property of Emblica officinalis Gaertn (Amla) in high fat dietfed/ low dose streptozotocin induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47(9):737-42.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19957886
19. Mehta S et al, Anti-diabetic activity of Emblica officinalis in animal models. Pharmaceutical Biology 2009;47(11):1050-1055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880200902991532
20. Perianayagam JB et al, Evaluation of antipyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;95(1):83-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.06.020
21. Shatawari (Asparagus racemosus) ; In : Rasayana: Ayurvedic Herbs for Longevity and Rejuvenation by Puri HS, tailor & Francis, 2003, Page no. 260.
https://books.google.com/books?id=ekjtVOppIxwC&pg=PA260
22. 14 : Indian Ayurvedic Medicine in Aging Prevention and Treatment by Vora B, Gupta SK; In : Aging Interventions and Therapies, by Rattan S, World Scientific, 2005, Page no. 317.
https://books.google.com/books?id=5vHICgAAQBAJ&pg=PA317