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Centella asiatica

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GENERAL FEATURES

Name: Centella asiatica
Name/
synonyms:
Botanical name:Hydrocotyle asiatica L.[1],[2],[3], [4], [5]
hydrocotyle LunataLam.[3]
Centella coriacea Nannfd., Hydrocotyle asiatica L., Hydrocotyle lunata Lam., and Trisanthus cochinchinensis Lour.[6]
Synonyms/common names :Gotu Kola[7], [5],[8], mandookparni[9]
English names:Indian Pennywort[3], Asiatic Pennywort, marsh Pennywort, water Pennywort, Pennyweed [4],wild violet, and tiger herb[6]
Trade name: Collaven®, Madecassol®, Emdecassol®[3]
Madecassol®[10]
Madecassol®(an ointment), and Centellase, a tablet formulation containing C. asiatica extract.[11]
some products in market containing Centella asiatica:Geriforte,
Nourishing skin cream from Himalaya Drug Company, India
SNP control cream, SD Biotechnologies co.,Ltd, Korea
Menosan, Abana, Mandukaparni, Mentat from Himalaya Drug Company, India[12]
Description: Family :Apiaceae(Umbelliferae)[1],[2],[3]
A perennial creeping plant[2],[3],[12]
It is distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of World such as India, China, Nepal, Madagascar, Srilanka and Indonesia etc.[12]
Chemical Nature: lipolytic in nature[13]
Extract used: methanolic extract[5]
aqueous extract[14]
hexane, ethyl acetate extract[8]
chloroform extract[15]
hydro-ethanolic extract[16]
acetone fraction of aqueous extract for radioprotection study[17]
hydro-alcoholic extract for radioprotection study[18]
Phyto-constituents
(active):
Triterpenoids, Volatile and Fatty acids, Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavanoids, Vitamin B, C, G and some amino acids[12]
pentacyclic triterpene derivatives[3]
asiatic acid, madecassic acid, madecassosides and asiaticoside A and B, terminolic acid[3], [19], [5],[20],[11],[13]
castilliferol and castillicetin, isochlorogenic acid [21]
mesoinositol, centellose, betulic acid, brahmic acid and isobrahmic acid, brahmoside and brahminoside[22]
centelloside, brahmoside, brahminoside, thankuniside, sceffoleoside, centellose, centellic acid, Thankunic acid, Isotankunic acid, Indocentoic acid[23]
Leaves:
madecassoside, asiaticoside, madecassic acid and asiatic acid [24]
flavanoids, phenolic constituents[25]
Aerial parts:
Centellasaponins B, C, and D, madecassoside, asiaticoside, asiaticoside B, and sceffoleoside A[26]
Fruit:
Roots, stem and bark:
Actions
& Indications:
Pharmcological Action-
anxiolytic activity in rodents[8], in humans[7]
extract exhibited Anti-allergic, anti-pruritic, and anti-inflammatory activity in animals[27],[15],[28]
antinociceptive in mice[28]
neuroprotective[6], in rats[29]
aqueous leaf extract showed antistress activity in animals[30] analgesic in rats[15]
antioxidant[25],[31]
cardioprotective in rat[32]
hepatoprotective in rat[33]
antitumor[34]
antidiabetic in rat[35]
antioxidant in vitro[9]
Therapeutic indications:
administration of C. asiatica regularly for two months reduced stress, attenuated anxiety, negated depression and enhanced adjustment and attention in patients without any side effects in humans[16]
Used as memory enhancer[36]
Centella asiatica extract is used effectively in treatment of keloids, leg ulcers, phlebitis, slow-healing wounds, leprosy, surgical lesions, striae and distensae, and cellulitis[37]
It is mentioned in a review that it is recommended for the treatment of various skin conditions such as leprosy, lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, psoriasis, diarrhoea, fever, amenorrhea, diseases of the female genitourinary tract [38]
Centella asiatica is reported to be beneficial for improving symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency in humans[39],[40],[41]
Preclinical study-
C. asiatica attenuated the acoustic startle response in humans[7]
Centella extract prevented ethanol- induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats[42]
Faster dermal wound healing, also open wound healing after administration of alcoholic as well as aqueous extract of C. asiatica has been observed in rat in vivo[43],[14]
Centella asiatica extract is shown to attenuate the age-related decline in cognitive function and mood disorder in the healthy elderly human subjects[44]
Extract improved symptoms of gastrointestinal ulcers in humans[10]
Centella asiatica extract modulates the genotoxicity of cyproterone acetate on human lymphocytes in vitro.[45]
extract is suggested to be effective in generalized anxiety disorder in man.[16]
Extract was shown to be anticonvulsant in rats hence suggested to br effective in treatment of epileptic seizures[46]
Notes:
REFERENCES
1. Chapter 6: Dementia and Cognitive Impairement;In: Handbook of Psychotropic Herbs: A Scientific Analysis of Herbal Remedies for Psychiatric Conditions by Russo EB, Tyler VM, 2001, page no. 159.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=cZtACwAAQBAJ&pg=PT159
2. Chapter 27: Identification of some important drugs;In : A Text Book of Homoeopathic Pharmacy by Mandal PP, Mandal B, B. Jain Publishers, 2001, page no. 321.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=u-y_sS546R8C&pg=PA321
3. Brinkhaus B et al, Chemical, pharmacological and clinical profile of the East Asian medical plant Centella asiatica. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(5):427-48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0944-7113(00)80065-3
4. Peiris KHS, Kays SJ, Asiatic pennywort [Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.]: little-known vegetable crop. HortTechnology 1996;6(1):13-18.
http://horttech.ashspublications.org/content/6/1/13.full.pdf
5. Schaneberg BT et al, An improved HPLC method for quantitative determination of six triterpenes in Centella asiatica extracts and commercial products. Pharmazie. 2003;58(6):381-4.
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/govi/pharmaz/2003/00000058/00000006/art00004?crawler=true
6. Orhan IE, Centella asiatica (L.) Urban: from traditional medicine to modern medicine with neuroprotective potential. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012;Article ID 946259, 8 pages.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/946259
7. Bradwejn J et al, A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) on acoustic startle response in healthy subjects. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000;20(6):680-4.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11106141
8. Wijeweera P et al, Evaluation of anxiolytic properties of Gotukola--(Centella asiatica) extracts and asiaticoside in rat behavioral models. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(9-10):668-76
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2006.01.011
9. Anand T et al, Antioxidant and DNA damage preventive properties of Centella asiatica (L) Urb. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2010; 2(17):53-58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0975-3575(10)80010-0
10. Shin HS et al, Clinical trials of Madecassol(Centella asiatica) on gastrointestinal ulcer patients. The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology. 1982;14(1):49-56.
http://pdf.medrang.co.kr/Kjg/014/Kjg014-01-10.pdf
11. Inamdar PK et al, Determination of biologically active constituents in Centella asiatica. Journal of Chromatography A 1996; 742(1-2) :127-130.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(96)00237-3
12. Singh S et al, Centella asiatica (L.): A plant with immense medicinal potential but threatened. 2010;4(2):9-17.
http://globalresearchonline.net/journalcontents/volume4issue2/Article%20003.pdf
13. hashim P et al, Triterpene composition and bioactivities of Centella asiatica. Molecules 2011; 16: 1310-1322.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules16021310
14. Sunilkumar, Parameshwaraiah S, Shivakumar HG, Evaluation of topical formulations of aqueous extract of Centella asiatica on open wounds in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1998;36(6):569-72.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9731470
15. Saha S et al, Evaluation of analgesic and anti-Inflammatory activity of Chloroform and Methanol extracts of Centella asiatica Linn. ISRN Pharmacology Volume 2013; Article ID 789613, 6 pages.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/789613
16. Jana U et al, A clinical study on the management of generalized anxiety disorder with Centella asiatica. Nepal Med Coll J 2010; 12(1): 8-11.
http://nmcth.edu/images/gallery/Editorial/gQTk2u_jana.pdf
17. Sharma J, Sharma R, Radioprotection by acetone extract fraction of Centella asiatica on peripheral blood cells of mouse. Pharmacologyonline 2010;1: 1004-1015.
http://pharmacologyonline.silae.it/files/archives/2010/vol1/99.Sharma.pdf
18. Joy J, Nair CKK, Chapter 17: Mitigation of Deleterious Effects of Ionizing Radiation by Phytoceuticals: Mechanistic Studies With Centella asiatica;In: Section IV, Herbal Radiomodulators: Applications in Medicine, Homeland Defence and Space edited by Arora R, 2008, Page no. 243-252.
https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1845934458
19. Pan J et al, Separation and determination of madecassic acid in triterpenic genins of Centella asiatica by high performance liquid chromatography using betacyclodextrin as mobile phase additive. Se Pu. 2007;25(3):316-8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17679419
20. Zeng J, Song Y, Xu X, Determination of the Triterpenes Constituents in Centella asiatica L.by HPLC. Primary Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 2000-06.
http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-JZZY200006002.htm
21. Subban R et al, Two new flavonoids from Centella asiatica (Linn.). J Nat Med. 2008;62(3):369-73.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11418-008-0229-0
22. Singh B, Rastogi RP, A reinvestigation of the triterpenes of Centella asiatica. Phytochemistry 1969;8(5):917-921.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)85884-7
23. James JT, Dubery IA, Pentacyclic Triterpenoids from the Medicinal Herb, Centella asiatica (L.) Urban. Molecules 2009; 14:3922-3941.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules14103922
24. Rafamantanana MH et al, An improved HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous quantification of triterpenic glycosides and aglycones in leaves of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb (APIACEAE). Journal of Chromatography B. 2009;877 :2396–2402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2009.03.018
25. Pitella F et al, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Centella asiatica (L) Urb. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009; 10: 3713-3721.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms10093713
26. Matsuda H et al, Medicinal Foodstuffs. XXVII.1) saponin constituents of Gotu Kola (2): structures of new Ursane- and Oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, centellasaponins B, C, and D, from Centella asiatica cultivated in Sri Lanka. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2001; 49(10) :1368—1371.
http://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.49.1368
27. George M, Joseph L, Ramaswamy, Anti-allergic, anti-pruritic, and anti-inflammatory activities of Centella asiatica extracts. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2009;6(4):554-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2816466/
28. Somchit MN et al, Antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects of Centella asiatica. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2004;36(6):377-380.
http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?ph04133
29. Kumar A, Dogra S, Prakash A, Neuroprotective Effects of Centella asiatica against Intracerebroventricular Colchicine-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Oxidative Stress. Int J Alzheimers Dis. 2009 ; pii: 972178.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2009/972178
30. Selvi PT et al, Antistress activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Centella asiatica. Linn by in vivo methods. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2012;2(3):91-94.
http://www.asianpharmaonline.org/AJPS/10_AJPS_2_2_2012.pdf
31. Hamid AA et al, Characterisation of antioxidative activities of various extracts of Centella asiatica (L) Urban. Food Chemistry 2002;77:465–469.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00384-3
32. Pragada RR et al, Cardioprotective activity of Hydrocotyle asiatica L. in ischemiareperfusion induced myocardial infarction in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;93(1):105-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.03.025
33. Antony B et al, Hepatoprotective effect of Centella asiatica (L) in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2006;68(6):772-776.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.31013
34. Babu TD, Kuttan G, Padikkala J, Cytotoxic and anti-tumour properties of certain taxa of Umbelliferae with special reference to Centella asiatica (L.) Urban. J Ethnopharmacol. 1995 ;48(1):53-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(95)01284-K
35. Rahman S et al, Antidiabetic activity of Centella asiatica (L.) urbana in alloxan induced Type 1 diabetic model rats. J. bio-sci. 2011;19: 23-27.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jbs.v19i0.12996
36. Jamil SS, Nizami Q, Salam M, Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban: a review. Natural product Radiance. 2007;6(2):158-170.
http://14.139.47.15/bitstream/123456789/7855/1/NPR%206(2)%20158-170.pdf
37. Hausen BM, Centella asiatica (Indian pennywort), an effective therapeutic but a weak sensitizer. Contact Dermatitis. 1993;29(4):175-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1993.tb03532.x
38. Gohil KJ, Patel JA, Gajjar AK, Pharmacological review on Centella asiatica: A potential herbal cure-all. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010; 72(5): 546–556.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.78519
39. Pointel JP et al, Titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) in the treatment of venous insufficiency of the lower limbs. Angiology. 1987;38(1 Pt 1):46-50.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000331978703800106
40. Chong NJ, Aziz Z, A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Centella asiatica for Improvement of the Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Venous Insufficiency. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:627182
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/627182
41. Incandela L et al, Total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica in chronic venous insufficiency and in high-perfusion microangiopathy. Angiology. 2001;52 Suppl 2:S9-13
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11666128
42. Cheng CL, Koo MWL, Effects of Centella asiatica on ethanol induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Life Sciences 2000;67(21):2647-2653.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0024- 3205(00)00848-1
43. Suguna L, Sivakumar P, Chandrakasan G, Effects of Centella asiatica extract on dermal wound healing in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1996;34(12):1208-11
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9246912
44. Wattanathorn J et al, Positive modulation of cognition and mood in the healthy elderly volunteer following the administration of Centella asiatica. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 ;116(2):325-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.11.038
45. Siddique YH et al, Antigenotoxic role of Centella asiatica L. extract against cyproterone acetate induced genotoxic damage in cultured human lymphocytes. Toxicology in Vitro 2008;22 :10–17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2007.07.001
46. Visweswari G et al, The antiepileptic effect of Centella asiatica on the activities of Na+/K+ , Mg2+ and Ca2+-ATPases in rat brain during pentylenetetrazol–induced epilepsy. Indian J Pharmacol. 2010; 42(2): 82–86.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.64504