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Amaranthus paniculatus

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GENERAL FEATURES

Name: Amaranthus paniculatus
Synonyms Botanical Name: Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn.)[18],[14], [13]
Synonyms/common names :Rajgira(Ramdana)[1], Halon[2],Amaranth in English[3],panicle amaranth, redshaank, wild amaranth[13]
Amaranthus cruentus L.[14],[13],[19],[20]
Trade name:
Description: Family : amaranthaceae[14], [13],[2]
It is an erect, stout, branched, unarmed, annual herb[14],[2]
Amaranth grain is used largely for feeding children and the elderly[4]
Chemical Nature:
Extract used: metanolic extract for a radiprotection experiment[15]
seed:
ethanolic extract[5]
Leaves:
ethanolic extract[6]
methanolic extract[16]
Aqueous extract[17]
Aerial parts:
Hydroacetonic, methanolic, and aqueous extracts[7]
root bark:
Phyto-constituents
(active):
Amaranth grain is a good source of protein and vitamins[4]
Carotenoids, vitamin C, folic acid,lysine, methionine, amino acids, β-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin A[2],[6]
Leaves:
polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, and betalains.[6]
phenolics, some of the essential amino acids[8]
Fruit:
Seed:
gallic acid[9]
anthocyanins, flavanoids[9]
Protocatechuic acid, gallic and sinapic acid, p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid[5]
Aerial parts:
Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols, gallic acid, rutin, betacyanin, Steroids and triterpenes Iridoids, Cardenolids, Carotenoids, Sapononins[7]
Actions
& Indications:
Pharmcological Action-
antianemic activity in rats[6]
hepatoprotective in rats[9]
antioxidant[7],[5]
Therapeutic indications:
Preclinical study-
Amaranth products showed binding activity for secondary bile acids toxic to the intestinal mucus.[10]
A. cruentus is suggested to have hypocholesterolemic effect[11]
Notes: Preparation of Amaranthus baby formula that matches pre-existing soy-oat infant formulas has been reported[12]
REFERENCES
1. Kasera R et al, First case report of anaphylaxis caused by Rajgira seed flour (Amaranthus paniculatus) from India: a clinico-immunologic evaluation. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2013;31(1):79-83.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23517398
2. Kumar A, Revathi K, Mohanalakshmi S, A review on edible herbs as haematinic. International Journal of Pharmacy. 2012; 2(2):44-53.
http://www.ijpjournal.org/File_Folder/44-53.pdf
3. Sreelatha S, Dinesh E, Uma C, Antioxidant properties of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) leaves and potential synergy in chemoprevention. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 2012;13:2775-2780.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.6.2775
4. Mburu MW et al, Properties of a complementary food based on Amaranth Grain (Amaranthus cruentus) grown in Kenya. J. Agric. Food. Tech. 2011;1(9)153-178.
http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajfand/article/view/75608
5. Klimczak I, Malecka M, Pacholek B, Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of amaranth seeds. Nahrung/Food 2001;46(3)184 - 186.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1521-3803(20020501)46:3<184::AID-FOOD184>3.0.CO;2-H
6. Pandey S et al, Hematopoietic effect of Amaranthus cruentus extract on Phenylhydrazine-induced toxicity in rats. Journal of Dietary Supplements. Early Online. 2016;1–9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19390211.2016.1155685
7. Nana FW et al, Phytochemical composition, antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. extracts. Pharmaceuticals 2012;5:613-628.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph5060613
8. Cheeke PR, Carlsson R, Kohler GO, Nutritive value of leaf protein concentrates prepared from Amaranthus species. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 1981;6l(1): 199-204.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/cjas81-026
9. Escudero NL et al, Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of flour and protein concentrate of Amaranthus cruentus seeds. Journal of Food Biochemistry 2011; 35:1327–1341.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4514.2010.00454.x
10. Tiengo A, Motta EM, Netto FM, Chemical composition and bile acid binding activity of products obtained from amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) seeds. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2011;66(4):370-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-011-0253-1
11. Soares RAM et al, Major peptides from Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) protein inhibit HMG-CoA reductase activity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015;16:4150-4160.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms16024150
12. Valle FRD et al, Chemical and nutritional evaluation of two amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus)- based infant formulas. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1993;43(2):145-156.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01087918
13. International Poisonous Plants Checklist: An Evidence-Based Reference by Wagstaff JD, CRC Press, 2008, page no 20
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=h7tbd-5ZAQ8C&pg=PA20
14. Alphabetical Treatment of Vegetables; In : Vegetables, Pplant Resources of Tropical Africa 2, edited by Grubben GJH, Denton OA, backhuys Publishers, 2004, page no. 67.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=6jrlyOPfr24C&pg=PA67
15. Bhatia AL, Jain M, Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn.) improves learning after radiation stress. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2003;85(1): 73–79.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00337-9
16. Jain M, Sisodia R, Bhatia AL, Studies of methanolic extract of Amaranthus paniculatus L. on mice liver against gamma radiation. 11th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, 23-28 May 2004, Madrid, Spain.
http://irpa11.irpa.net/pdfs/1d3.pdf
17. Krishna A, Kumar A, Evaluation of radioprotective effects of Rajgira(Amaranthus paniculatus) extract in Swiss albino mice. J. Radiat. Res.2005; 46(2): 233–239.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1269/jrr.46.233
18. Manikandan PN, Ethno- medico - botanical studies of Badaga population Iin the Nilgiri district of Tamilnadu, South India. Anc Sci Life. 2008;27(3):50-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3330860/
19. World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference, Second Edition By Wiersema JH, León B, CRC Press, 2016, page no. 44.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=AIrNBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA44
20. Multilingual Dictionary of Agronomic Plants edited by Rehm G, Springer Science & Business Media, 2012, page no. 14.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=IZ7-CAAAQBAJ&pg=PA14