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Alstonia scholaris

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GENERAL FEATURES

Name: Alstonia scholaris
Name/
synonyms:
Botanical name:Alstonia scholaris Linn. R. Br[1], [2]
Synonyms/common names :Devils tree[3], Satona[5], Sapthaparna[6], Dita bark[7],[8],[9],Pule[10],White cheese wood[9],[8]
Trade name:
Alstonia scholaris is used in various Ayurvedic preparations like "Saptaparnasatvadi vati", "Saptachadadi vati", "Saptacchadadi kvatha" and "Saptaparna ghanasara"[3]
Description: Family : Apocynaceae,[12], [3],[1]
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. is an evergreen tropical tree native to Indian sub-continent and South East Asia, having grayish rough bark and milky sap rich in poisonous alkaloid.[11],[12],[50]
Extract used: benzene and CHCl3 extract[13]
alcoholic extract[3]
aqueous methanol extract[5]
ethanolic extract[14]
hydroalcoholic extract [6], of bark is used for radiomodification experiment[15]
methanolic extract[16]
dichloromethane extract[17]
Phyto-constituents
(active):
alkaloids, reduced sugars, tannin and saponin, iridoids, coumarins, leucoanthocyanins, steroids[18],[11]
Echitamine chloride[19]
alstoscholarisine H, alstoscholarisine I, alstoscholarisine J[20]
Alistonitrine A[21]
Flavanoids and phenols[22]
Leaves:
alstonic acids A and B, N1-methoxymethyl picrinine[23]
seco-uleine alkaloids: manilamine (18-hydroxy-19,20-dehydro-7,21-seco-uleine) and N4-methyl angustilobine B[24]
Alschomine, isoalschomine, picrinine, picralinal, nareline[13],[25],[26]
(20 S)-19,20-dihydrocondylocarpine[27]
monoterpenoid indole alkaloids : (19,20) E-alstoscholarine and (19,20) Z-alstoscholarine[28]
alkaloid : Mataranine A and B[29]
nareline ethyl ether, 5-epi-nareline ethyl ether, scholarine-V(4)- oxide, nareline methyl ether, picrinine and scholaricine[30][31]
19-epischolaricine, Nb-methylscholaricine, Na-methylburnamine and vallesamine Nb-oxide, and 6,7-secoangustilobine B[32]
5-methoxystrictamine , methyl (16R,19E)-1,2-dihydro-16-(hydroxymethyl)-5-oxoakuammilan-17- oate, and methyl (2β,16R,19E)-4,5-didehydro-1,2-dihydro-2-hydroxy-16-(hydroxymethyl)akuammilan-4- ium-17-oate chloride[33]
ursolic acid[34]
alkaloids and Triterpenes : Scholaricine, 19-Epi-scholaricine, Sarpagine, N4-Demthylechitamine, Echitamidine, Strictamine, Akuammidine, Vallesamine, Picraline, Picralinal, Cylicodiscic acid, Betulin, Betulinic acid, Oleanolic acid, Ursolic acid, Cycloeucalenol, α-amyrin acetate[35]
flavanoids : kaempferol , quercetin , isorhamnetin , kaempferol-3-0-beta-D-galactopyranoside, quercetin-3-0-beta-D-galactopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-0-beta-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol-3-0-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-( 2-1)-0-beta-D-galactopyranoside ,quercetin-3-0-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-( 2-1)-0-beta-D-galactopyranoside[36]
lagunamine (19-hydroxytubotaiwine), angustilobine B acid and losbanine (6,7-seco-6-nor-angustilobine B) [37]
Fruit:
N-formylscholarine, picrinine, strictamine and nareline has been isolated from the fruit pods[38]
Roots, stem and bark:
alkaloids : akuammicine; akuammicine-Nb-methiodide, akuammicine-Nb-oxide, ψ-akuammigine, Nb-demethylechitamine, tubotaiwine[39]
Two triterpenoids α-amyrin acetate, lupeol, and a steroid β-sitosterol from root bark[7]
alstonoside and two isoflavone apioglucosides: formononetin 7-O-β-Dapiofuranosyl-( 1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside and biochanin A 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside from stems of A. scholaris[40]
17-O-Acetylechitamine, echitamine from bark[37]
Iridoids: scholareins A–D, along with three known derivatives, isoboonein, alyxialactone, and loganin from bark[41]
scholarisines B-G from bark[42]
akuammiginone, echitamidine-N-oxide 19-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, echitaminic acid, echitamidine N-oxide, Nb-demethylalstogustine N-oxide, akuammicine N-oxide, and Nb-demethylalstogustine from bark[43]
Actions
& Indications:
Pharmcological Action-
hypoglycemic effect of leaves in mice[4]
anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-ulcerogenic in animals[14]
antianxiety and antidepressant in animals[44]
antiarthritic activity and in vivo antioxidant effect of leaves in animal models[45]
antioxidant activities of methanolic leaf, follicles and latex extracts[16]
antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of leaves of Alstonia in animal model.[2]
anti-diarrheal and anti-nociceptive activity of methanolic extract in mice model[46]
immunostimulatory activity of bark extract in mice model[10]
immunomodulatory activity of leaf extract in mice model[35]
alkaloid fraction of Alstonia showed anticancer activity in vivo and in vitro[47]
anticancer activity in animals[19]
hepatoprotective in mice[48]
anti-stress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities in mice[49]
Therapeutic indications:
Traditinal Use of A. scholaris are mainly in whooping cough, malaria, jaundice, gastric complaint, headache, asthma, stomach ache and fever.[3],[9]
It is used as febrifuge, emmenagogue, diarrhea, antihelmintic, anecdote for snake bite[50][51],[12]
Preclinical study-
The ethanol and aqueous extracts of Alstonia scholaris promotes wound healing activity in rat model[1]
ethanolic bark extract exhibited antidiarrheal activity in Swiss albino mice in vivo[18]
crude extract of Alstonia scholaris exhibited antidiarrhoeal activity in mice in vivo and spasmolytic effects in rabbits in vitro[52]
Aqueous extract exhibited laxative activity in rats in vivo[53]
Notes:
REFERENCES
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44. Arulmozhi S et al, Anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activity of leaves of Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br. Pharmacologia. 2012;3(8):239-248.
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45. Arulmozhi S et al, Anti-arthritic and antioxidant activity of leaves of Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2011;3(2):e83–e90.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2011.04.019
46. Hossain MS et al, Evaluation of antidiarrheal and antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris Linn. on mice models.The Journal of Phytopharmacology 2014; 3(6): 423-430.
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48. Lin SC et al, The protective effect of Alstonia scholaris R. Br. on hepatotoxin-induced acute liver damage. Am J Chin Med. 1996;24(2):153-64.
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52. Shah AJ et al, Antidiarrhoeal and spasmolytic activities of the methanolic crude extract of Alstonia scholaris L. are mediated through calcium channel blockade. Phytother Res. 2010 ;24(1):28-32.
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53. Kumar A et al, Evaluation of laxative activity of Alstonia scholaris. Jordan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2013;7(2):120-123.
http://journals.ju.edu.jo/JJPS/article/view/6848/3940