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Alstonia scholaris

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Name: Alstonia scholaris
Botanical name:Alstonia scholaris Linn. R. Br[1], [2]
Synonyms/common names :Devils tree[3], Satona[5], Sapthaparna[6], Dita bark[7],[8],[9],Pule[10],White cheese wood[9],[8]
Trade name:
Alstonia scholaris is used in various Ayurvedic preparations like "Saptaparnasatvadi vati", "Saptachadadi vati", "Saptacchadadi kvatha" and "Saptaparna ghanasara"[3]
Description: Family : Apocynaceae,[12], [3],[1]
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. is an evergreen tropical tree native to Indian sub-continent and South East Asia, having grayish rough bark and milky sap rich in poisonous alkaloid.[11],[12],[50]
Extract used: benzene and CHCl3 extract[13]
alcoholic extract[3]
aqueous methanol extract[5]
ethanolic extract[14]
hydroalcoholic extract [6], of bark is used for radiomodification experiment[15]
methanolic extract[16]
dichloromethane extract[17]
alkaloids, reduced sugars, tannin and saponin, iridoids, coumarins, leucoanthocyanins, steroids[18],[11]
Echitamine chloride[19]
alstoscholarisine H, alstoscholarisine I, alstoscholarisine J[20]
Alistonitrine A[21]
Flavanoids and phenols[22]
alstonic acids A and B, N1-methoxymethyl picrinine[23]
seco-uleine alkaloids: manilamine (18-hydroxy-19,20-dehydro-7,21-seco-uleine) and N4-methyl angustilobine B[24]
Alschomine, isoalschomine, picrinine, picralinal, nareline[13],[25],[26]
(20 S)-19,20-dihydrocondylocarpine[27]
monoterpenoid indole alkaloids : (19,20) E-alstoscholarine and (19,20) Z-alstoscholarine[28]
alkaloid : Mataranine A and B[29]
nareline ethyl ether, 5-epi-nareline ethyl ether, scholarine-V(4)- oxide, nareline methyl ether, picrinine and scholaricine[30][31]
19-epischolaricine, Nb-methylscholaricine, Na-methylburnamine and vallesamine Nb-oxide, and 6,7-secoangustilobine B[32]
5-methoxystrictamine , methyl (16R,19E)-1,2-dihydro-16-(hydroxymethyl)-5-oxoakuammilan-17- oate, and methyl (2β,16R,19E)-4,5-didehydro-1,2-dihydro-2-hydroxy-16-(hydroxymethyl)akuammilan-4- ium-17-oate chloride[33]
ursolic acid[34]
alkaloids and Triterpenes : Scholaricine, 19-Epi-scholaricine, Sarpagine, N4-Demthylechitamine, Echitamidine, Strictamine, Akuammidine, Vallesamine, Picraline, Picralinal, Cylicodiscic acid, Betulin, Betulinic acid, Oleanolic acid, Ursolic acid, Cycloeucalenol, α-amyrin acetate[35]
flavanoids : kaempferol , quercetin , isorhamnetin , kaempferol-3-0-beta-D-galactopyranoside, quercetin-3-0-beta-D-galactopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-0-beta-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol-3-0-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-( 2-1)-0-beta-D-galactopyranoside ,quercetin-3-0-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-( 2-1)-0-beta-D-galactopyranoside[36]
lagunamine (19-hydroxytubotaiwine), angustilobine B acid and losbanine (6,7-seco-6-nor-angustilobine B) [37]
N-formylscholarine, picrinine, strictamine and nareline has been isolated from the fruit pods[38]
Roots, stem and bark:
alkaloids : akuammicine; akuammicine-Nb-methiodide, akuammicine-Nb-oxide, ψ-akuammigine, Nb-demethylechitamine, tubotaiwine[39]
Two triterpenoids α-amyrin acetate, lupeol, and a steroid β-sitosterol from root bark[7]
alstonoside and two isoflavone apioglucosides: formononetin 7-O-β-Dapiofuranosyl-( 1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside and biochanin A 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside from stems of A. scholaris[40]
17-O-Acetylechitamine, echitamine from bark[37]
Iridoids: scholareins A–D, along with three known derivatives, isoboonein, alyxialactone, and loganin from bark[41]
scholarisines B-G from bark[42]
akuammiginone, echitamidine-N-oxide 19-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, echitaminic acid, echitamidine N-oxide, Nb-demethylalstogustine N-oxide, akuammicine N-oxide, and Nb-demethylalstogustine from bark[43]
& Indications:
Pharmcological Action-
hypoglycemic effect of leaves in mice[4]
anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-ulcerogenic in animals[14]
antianxiety and antidepressant in animals[44]
antiarthritic activity and in vivo antioxidant effect of leaves in animal models[45]
antioxidant activities of methanolic leaf, follicles and latex extracts[16]
antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of leaves of Alstonia in animal model.[2]
anti-diarrheal and anti-nociceptive activity of methanolic extract in mice model[46]
immunostimulatory activity of bark extract in mice model[10]
immunomodulatory activity of leaf extract in mice model[35]
alkaloid fraction of Alstonia showed anticancer activity in vivo and in vitro[47]
anticancer activity in animals[19]
hepatoprotective in mice[48]
anti-stress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities in mice[49]
Therapeutic indications:
Traditinal Use of A. scholaris are mainly in whooping cough, malaria, jaundice, gastric complaint, headache, asthma, stomach ache and fever.[3],[9]
It is used as febrifuge, emmenagogue, diarrhea, antihelmintic, anecdote for snake bite[50][51],[12]
Preclinical study-
The ethanol and aqueous extracts of Alstonia scholaris promotes wound healing activity in rat model[1]
ethanolic bark extract exhibited antidiarrheal activity in Swiss albino mice in vivo[18]
crude extract of Alstonia scholaris exhibited antidiarrhoeal activity in mice in vivo and spasmolytic effects in rabbits in vitro[52]
Aqueous extract exhibited laxative activity in rats in vivo[53]
1. Arulmozhi S et al, Screening of Alstonia scholaris Linn. R. Br., for wound healing activity. Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine 2007 ;7(3): 254-260.
2. Arulmozhi S et al, Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of leaves of Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br. European Journal of Integrative Medicine 2010;2(1):23–32.
3. Ahmad MS et al, Anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activity of Alstonia scholaris on the albino mice bone marrow cells and peripheral human lymphocyte culture against methyl methane sulfonate induced genotoxicity. Adv Biomed Res 2016;5:92.
4. Ragasa CY et al, Hypoglycemic potential of triterpenes from Alstonia scholaris. Pharm Chem J 2013;47(1): 54-57.
5. Jong-Anurakkun N, Bhandari MR, Kawabata J, α-Glucosidase inhibitors from Devil tree (Alstonia scholaris). Food Chemistry 2007;103 :1319–1323.
6. Baliga MS et al, The evaluation of the acute toxicity and long term safety of hydroalcoholic extract of Sapthaparna (Alstonia scholaris) in mice and rats. Toxicology Letters 2004;151:317–326.
7. Hemlatha K, Satyanarayana D, Subrahmanyan EVS, Phytochemical constituents of root bark of Alstonia scholaris. R. Br. Asian Journal of Chemistry 2008;20(7):5405-5408.
8. Baliga MS, Review of the phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of Alstonia Scholaris Linn. R. Br (Saptaparna). Chin. J. Integr. Med. 2012;1-14.
9. Arora A, Rai Y, A Review: Phytochemictry, Ethanobotanical and Pharmacological activities of Alstonia scholaris R.Br (Apocynaceae). International Journal of Advanced Research 2015;3(8):584-590.
10. Iwo MI et al, Immunostimulating effect of pule (Alstonia scholaris L. R.Br., Apocynaceae) bark extracts. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2000;23(2-4):177-83.
11. Kaushik P et al, Alstonia scholaris: It’s phytochemistry and pharmacology. Chron Young Sci 2011;2:71-8.
12. Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants;In : Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants: Herbal Reference Library by Kapoor LD, CRC Press, 2000, page no. 31.
13. Abe F et al, Alschomine and Isoalschomine, new alkaloids from the leaves of Alstonia scholaris. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1989;37(4):887-890.
14. Arulmozhi S et al, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-ulcerogenic Activities of Fractions from Alstonia scholaris. Pharmacologica. 2012;3(5):132-137.
15. Gupta U et al, Amelioration of radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations by Alstonia scholaris (a medicinal plant) extract. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2008;7(3): 155-161.
16. Ganjewala D, Gupta AK, Study on phytochemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of different parts of Alstonia scholaris Linn. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2013; 3(2):379-384.
17. Verma PK et al, Polyphenolic constituents and antioxidant/antiradical activity in different extracts of Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) African Journal of Biotechnology. 2015;14(47):3190-3197.
18. Saifuzzaman M et al, Antidiaarheal and cytotoxic activities of Alstonia scholaris bark. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2013;4(3):101-103.
19. Kamarajan P et al, Antitumor effect of echitamine chloride on methylcholonthrene induced fibrosarcoma in rats. Biochem Int. 1991;25(3):491-8.
20. Pan ZQ et al, Alstoscholarisines H−J, Indole Alkaloids from Alstonia scholaris: structural evaluation and bioinspired synthesis of Alstoscholarisine H. Org. Lett. 2016; 18 (4):654–657.
21. Zhu GY et al, Alistonitrine A, a caged monoterpene indole alkaloid from Alstonia scholaris. Org. Lett. 2014; 16 (4):1080–1083.
22. Ramchandra YL, Ashajyothi C, Rai SP, Antioxidant activity of Alstonia scholaris extracts containing flavonoid and phenolic compounds. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2012; 4 (3):424-426.
23. Wang F, Ren FC, Liu JK, Alstonic acids A and B, unusual 2,3-secofernane triterpenoids from Alstonia scholaris. Phytochemistry 2009;70(5):650–654.
24. Macabeo AP et al, Indole alkaloids from the leaves of Philippine Alstonia scholaris. Phytochemistry. 2005;66(10):1158-62.
25. Ghosh R et al, The structure of an alkaloid, picrinine, from Alstonia scholaris. Acta Cryst.1988; C44: 2151-2154.
26. Rastogi RC, Kapil RS, Popli SP, Picralinal — A key alkaloid of picralima group from Alstonia scholaris R. Br. Experientia 1970; 26(10): 1056.
27. Atta-ur-Rahman, Alvi KA, Muzaffar A, Isolation and 1H/13C-NMR studies on 19,20-Dihydrocondylocarpine: an alkaloid from the leaves of Ervatamia coronaria and Alstonia scholaris. Planta Med. 1986;(4):325-6.
28. Cai XH, Du ZZ, Luo XD, Unique monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from Alstonia scholaris. Org Lett. 2007;9(9):1817-20.
29. Hadi S, Mataranine A and B: A new diastomeric indole alkaloid from Alstonia scholaris R. Br. of Lombok Island. Indo. J. Chem. 2009;9 (3):505 - 508 .
30. Kam TS et al, Alkaloids from Alstonia scholaris. Phyrochrmisrry. 1997;45(6):1303-1305.
31. Atta-Ur-Rahman A et al, Scholaricine, an alkaloid from Alstonia scholaris. Phytochemistry 1985;24(11):2771-2773.
32. Yamauchi T et al, Alkaloids from the leaves of Alstonia scholaris in Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines. Phytochemistry 1990; 29(11):3547-3552.
33. Zhou H et al, Three new indole alkaloids from the leaves of Alstonia scholaris. Helvetica Chimica Acta. 2005 ;88(9):2508–2512.
34. Shetty P, Mangaonkar K, Sane R, HPTLC determination of ursolic acid in Alstonia scholaris R. Br. Journal of Planar Chromatography - Modern TLC. 2007; 20(1):65-68.
35. Feng L et al, A combination of alkaloids and triterpenes of Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R. Br. leaves enhances immunomodulatory activity in C57BL/6 mice and induces apoptosis in the A549 cell line. Molecules 2013; 18: 13920-13939.
36. Hui T et al, Flavonoids in leaves of Alstonia scholaris. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34(9):1111-3.
37. Yamauchi T et al, Alkaloids from leaves and bark of Alstonia scholaris in the Philippines. Phytochemistry 1990;29(10):3321-3325.
38. Jain L et al, A new indole alkaloid from Alstonia scholaris. Nat Prod Res. 2009;23(17):1599-602.
39. Boonchuay W, Court WE, Minor alkaloids of alstonia scholaris root. Phyrochemistry 1976;15(5):821.
40. Thomas PS et al, Alstonoside, a secoiridoid glucoside from Alstonia scholaris. Indian Journal of Chemistry 2008;47B: 1298-1302.
41. Feng T et al, Iridoids from the bark of Alstonia scholaris. Helvetica Chimica Acta. 2008; 91(12):2247–2251.
42. Feng T et al, Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from the bark of Alstonia scholaris. Planta Med. 2009;75(14):1537-41.
43. Salim AA, Garson MJ, Craik DJ, New indole alkaloids from the bark of Alstonia scholaris. J. Nat. Prod. 2004; 67 (9):1591–1594.
44. Arulmozhi S et al, Anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activity of leaves of Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br. Pharmacologia. 2012;3(8):239-248.
45. Arulmozhi S et al, Anti-arthritic and antioxidant activity of leaves of Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2011;3(2):e83–e90.
46. Hossain MS et al, Evaluation of antidiarrheal and antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris Linn. on mice models.The Journal of Phytopharmacology 2014; 3(6): 423-430.
47. Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, Evaluation of anticancer activity of the alkaloid fraction of Alstonia scholaris (Sapthaparna) in vitro and in vivo. Phytother Res. 2006;20(2):103-9.
48. Lin SC et al, The protective effect of Alstonia scholaris R. Br. on hepatotoxin-induced acute liver damage. Am J Chin Med. 1996;24(2):153-64.
49. Kulkarni MP, Juvekar AR, Effect of Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R. Br. on stress and cognition in mice. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47(1):47-52.
50. CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names by Quattrocchi Umbero, Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology, CRC Press, 2012, page no. 210.
51. Chapter III: Inventory, documentation and status of medicinal plants research:Initial Country Project Reports and Work Plan: Philippines by Eusebio JE, Umali BE ;In: Medicinal Plants Research in Asia - Volume I: The Framework and Project edited by Batugal PA et al, 2004, page no. 159.
52. Shah AJ et al, Antidiarrhoeal and spasmolytic activities of the methanolic crude extract of Alstonia scholaris L. are mediated through calcium channel blockade. Phytother Res. 2010 ;24(1):28-32.
53. Kumar A et al, Evaluation of laxative activity of Alstonia scholaris. Jordan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2013;7(2):120-123.