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Aloe vera

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GENERAL FEATURES

Name: Aloe vera
Botanical name: Aloe barbadensis miller.[1]
Synonyms/common names :
Trade name:
Natural Aloe Vera Gel®, Arifoglu A.S.[2]
Daltonmax 700®[3]
Aloecorp®[4]
Acemannan HydrogelTM[5]
Qmatrix®[6]
Description: Asphodelaceae (Liliaceae)[7],[1],[8]
It is a shrubby or arborescent, perennial, xerophytic, succulent, pea- green color plant. It grows mainly in the dry regions of Africa, Asia, Europe and America. In India, it is found in Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.[1]
Chemical Nature:
Extract used: seed:
Leaves:
ethanolic, aqueous, and acetone extract[9]
petroleum ether, aqueous and methanolic extract[10]
ethanol, methanol, aqueous and chloroform extract[8]
Aerial parts:
root bark:
Phyto-constituents
(active):
alkaloid, saponin, tannin, flavanoid, steroid, glycoside, berberine, gallic acid from crude extract[11], salicylic acid [12]
emodin, Chrysophanic acid, aloin(barbaloin), aloe-emodin[12]
anthraquinones, chromones, polysaccharides, hydroxyanthrone, aloe-emodin-anthrone 10-C-glucoside and chrones[13]
Leaves:
Tannin, Saponin, Flavonoids and Terpenoids[9],alkaloid, flavanoid, tannin[8]
1-Tetradecyne, n-Hexadecanoic acid, Phytol, Oleic Acid, Eicoane, Squalene, Vitamin E, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, Tetracontane, Sitosterol, Lupeol[9]
Anthroquinones/Anthrones: Aloe-emodin, aloetic acid, anthranol, aloin A and B[14]
lectin[4-heggers]
26 amino acids, D-glucose, and D-mannose were present in the water-soluble fraction; Cholesterol, campesterol, β-sitosterol, and lupeol were found in substantial amounts in the lipid fraction[15]
tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, carbohydrates, and alkaloids[16]
Fruit:
Seeds
Skin:
Barbaloin in leaf skin[17]
polysaccharides: GAPS-1 and SAPS-1 [18]
Actions
& Indications:
Pharmcological Action-
anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent[19],[20]
anti-ulcerogenic activity in rats[21],[22]
anti-tumor activity in mice[23]
gastroprotective in rats[24]
hypoglycemic in diabetic rat model.[25]
Therapeutic indications:
It reduced erythema of skin in human volunteers[3]
Aloe vera is proven to be safe for treatment of mild to moderately active ulcerative collitis in patients[26]
Preclinical study-
plant extracts could be used for the treatment of various infections including skin transmitted infection[9]
Aloe vera gel can effectively decrease peritoneal adhesion formation postoperatively in rat models[2]
glycoprotein fraction is involved in the wound-healing effect of aloe vera on a monolayer of human keratinocytes and in hairless mice.[27]
Aloe appears to expedite wound contraction and neutralize the wound retardant effect in rat model[4], also shorter wound care time for skin graft donor sites in patients who were treated with aloe vera[28]
It was found to be effective in second degree burn wounds in rats [20]
It has anti-thromboxane effect and potentiates an anesthetic effect[12]
>99% pure carbohydrate fraction from Aloe vera extracts revealed increased hematopoietic and hematologic activity[29]
Notes:
REFERENCES
1. Surjushe A, Vasani R, Saple DG, Aloe vera : a short review. Indian J Dermatol. 2008; 53(4): 163–166.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.44785
2. Aysan E, Bektas H, Ersoz F, A new approach to postoperative peritoneal adhesions: Prevention of peritoneal trauma by aloe vera gel. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2010;149: 195–198.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2009.11.019
3. Fox LT et al, In Vivo skin hydration and anti-erythema effects of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii gel materials after single and multiple applications. Pharmacogn Mag. 2014 ; 10(Suppl 2): S392–S403.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.133291
4. Heggers JP et al, Beneficial effect of Aloe on wound healing in an excisional wound model. J Altern Complement Med. 1996 ;2(2):271-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.1996.2.271
5. Ni Y et al, Isolation and characterization of structural components of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp. International Immunopharmacology 2004;4: 1745–1755.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2004.07.006
6. Williams MD et al, Safety studies conducted on a proprietary high-purity aloe vera inner leaf fillet preparation, Qmatrix®. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 2010; 57(1):90–98.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2010.01.002
7. Joseph B, Raj SJ, Pharmacognostic and phytochemical properties of aloe vera linn- an overview. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 2010;4(2):106-110.
http://globalresearchonline.net/journalcontents/volume4issue2/Article%20017.pdf
8. Vastrad JV et al, Identification of bio-active components in leaf extracts of Aloe vera, Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulasi) and Tinospora cordifolia (Amrutballi). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2015; 9(28):764- 770.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2013.5197
9. Arunkumar S, Muthuselvam M, Analysis of phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of Aloe vera L. against clinical pathogens. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2009;5 (5): 572-576.
https://www.idosi.org/wjas/wjas5(5)/9.pdf
10. Das P, Srivastav AK, Phytochemical extraction and characterization of the leaves of Aloe vera barbadensis for its anti- bacterial and anti-oxidant activity. International Journal of Science and Research 2015;4(6):658-661.
http://www.ijsr.net/archive/v4i6/SUB155275.pdf
11. Patel DK, Patel K, Dhanabal SP, Phytochemical standardization of Aloe vera extract by HPTLC techniques. Journal of Acute Disease 2012;1(1): 47-50.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2221-6189(13)60011-6
12. Robson MC, Heggers JP, Hagstrom WJ, Myth, magic witchcraft or fact? Aloe vera revisited. Journal of burn care & research. 1982;3(3):157-162.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004630-198205000-00005
13. Sahu PK et al, Therapeutic and medicinal uses of Aloe vera: a review. Pharmacology & Pharmacy 2013;4: 599-610.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/pp.2013.48086
14. Soni H et al, Qualitative and quantitative profile of Aloin isolated from Aloe vera. IRJP 2011;2(9):121-122.
http://www.irjponline.com/admin/php/uploads/vol2-issue9/28.pdf
15. Waller GR, Mangiafico S, Ritchey CR, A chemical investigation of Aloe barbadensis Miller. Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci. 1978;58: 69-76.
http://naturalingredient.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/p69_76.pdf
16. Raphael E, Phytochemical constituents of some leaves extract of Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica plant species. Glo. Adv. Res. J. Environ. Sci. Toxicol. 2012;1(2) :014-017.
http://garj.org/garjest/5/2012/1/2/
17. Pandey DK, Parida S, Dey A, Comparative HPTLC analysis of bioactive marker barbaloin from in vitro and naturally grown Aloe vera. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy 2016;26:161-167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2015.08.016
18. Chun-hui L et al, Isolation, chemical characterization and antioxidant activities of two polysaccharides from the gel and the skin of Aloe barbadensis Miller irrigated with sea water. Process Biochemistry 2007;42: 961–970.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2007.03.004
19. Barati AH, Fazeli F, Lotfipour M, Effect of Aloe vera on some indicators of cell damage after a period of aerobic exercise in male athletes. J HerbMed Pharmacol. 2015; 4(3): 85-88.
http://www.herbmedpharmacol.com/PDF/JHP-4-85.pdf
20. Somboonwong J et al, Therapeutic effects of Aloe vera on cutaneous microcirculation and wound healing in second degree burn model in rats. J Med Assoc Thai. 2000;83(4):417-25.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10808702
21. Borra SK, Lagisetty RK, Mallela GR, Anti-ulcer effect of Aloe vera in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced peptic ulcers in rats. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2011; 5(16):1867-1871.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPP11.306
22. Gopinathan S, Rameela N, Anti-ulcer activity of Aloe vera juice and Aloe vera and amla fruit combined juice in ethanol induced ulcerated rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(6):190-197.
http://www.ijppsjournal.com/Vol6Issue6/9446.pdf
23. Naveena, Bharath BK, Selvasubramanian, Antitumor activity of Aloe vera against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 2011;2(2):400-409.
http://ijpbs.net/volume2/issue2/pharma/51.pdf
24. Yusuf S, Agunu A, Diana M, The effect of Aloe vera A. Berger (Liliaceae) on gastric acid secretion and acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 ;93(1):33-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.03.027
25. Rajasekaran S et al, Hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera gel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in experimental rats. J Med Food. 2004;7(1):61-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/109662004322984725
26. Langmead L et al, Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral aloe vera gel for active ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19: 739–747.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2004.01902.x
27. Choi SW et al, The wound-healing effect of a glycoprotein fraction isolated from aloe vera. Br J Dermatol. 2001 ;145(4):535-45.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2133.2001.04410.x
28. Khorasani G et al, The Effects of Aloe Vera cream on split-thickness skin graft donor site management: a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study. Wounds. 2011 ;23(2):44-8.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25881055
29. Talmadge J et al, Fractionation of Aloe vera L. inner gel, purification and molecular profiling of activity. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 ;4(14):1757-73.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2004.07.013