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Aegle marmelos

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GENERAL FEATURES

Name: Aegle marmelos
Scientific Name: Binomial name: Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa Serr.[1]
Synonyms : Feronia pellucida Roth, Cratarea marmelos L.[2]
English names: Stone apple, Bengal quince[3]
Description: Commonly known as "Bael" or "Bilva" and belongs to a Rutaceae family,[3],[4],[5],Subfamily: Aurantioideae[1] widely grown in the sub-Himalayan tract, Central and Southern India[6]
Extract used: ethanolic extract[7],[8],[9],[10]
aqueous extract[11],[12],[13],[14],[10]
methanol and acetone extract[15],[16],[17],[10],[18]
hydroalcoholic (80% ethanol, 20% water) extract [19], these extracts are also used in radioprotection studies[46],[47],[48]
Plant is also reported to be extracted using petroleum ether and chloroform [44]
Phyto-constituents
(active):
Different part of plants contain alkaloids(Aeglin, aegelenine), coumarins(Marmelosin, marmesin, imperatorin), terpenoids, tannins(skimmianine), umbelliferone[4],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24], marmenol, marmin, marmelosin, marmelide, psoralen, alloimperatorin, rutaretin, scopoletin, aegelin, marmelin, fagarine, anhydromarmelin, limonene, â-phellandrene, betulinic acid, marmesin, imperatorin, marmelosin, luvangentin and auroptene [2]
chemical constituents employed as markers for standardization of the plant:
ferulic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin, marmelosin, aegeline, lupeol, ricinoleic acid, ascorbic acid, umbelliferone, limonine, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid[2]
Leaves:
Leaves contain bioactive chemicals such as γ-sitosterol, aegelin,rutin, marmesinin, β-sitosterol, flavone, glycoside, O-isopentenyl halfordiol, marmeline, phenylethyl cinnamamides[4],Skimmianine, Aeglin, Rutin, γ-sitosterol, β-sitosterol, Flavone, Lupeol, Cineol, Citral, Glycoside, O-isopentenyl , Halfordiol, Marmeline, Citronellal, Cuminaldehyde phenylethyl cinnamamides, Eugenol, Marmesinin [20], Citronella, Cuminaldehyde, Eugenol, Marmesinine [5]
vitamin E , terpenes, flavanoids [22]
The Aegle marmelos leaves are good source of several antioxidant components such as, β-carotene, glutathione, α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, polyphenols and flavonoids[10]
alkaloids such as O-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-halfordinol, N-2-ethoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethylcinnamamide, N-2-methoxy-2-[4-(3',3'-dimethylallylloxy)phenyl]ethylcinnamamide, and N-2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxypheny)- ethylcinnamamide have been isolated from the leaves of A. marmelos[25]
alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, volatile oil, glycosides and phenolic groups in leaves[26]
Fruit:
tannins, carotenoids in fruit part[4], terpenoids, tanin and phenolics, glycoside, alkaloid, flavone and flavanoids, saponins, sterols and steroids in unripe fruit [27], Marmelosin, Luvangetin, Aurapten, Psoralen, Marmelide, Tannin in fruit[20]
steroid, terpinoids, saponins, tannis, lignin, flavonoids in fruit pulp[28]
coumarins, marmesiline, marmelonine[42]
marmeline, Aegeline, imperatorin, alloimperatorin and xanthotoxol were also present in unripe fruit of A. marmelos extract[29]
Marmelosin, Luvangetin, Aurapten, Psoralen, Marmelide, Tannin, vitamin C, riboflavin, organic acids in fruit[5],[30]
Roots, stem and bark:
skimmianine, γ-fagarine, marmesin, marmin, xanthotoxin, umbelliferone and lupeol have been isolated from root-bark[6]
root has high phenolic compound content[7]
coumarin , Lupeol, 5-Methoxy psoralen , stigmasterol in stem-bark[31]
aeglemarmelosine, skimmianine, imperatorin, aurapten, epoxyaurapten, marmin , xanthotoxin , marmisin and scopoletin in root and twigs[32]
Skimmianine, Fagarine , Marmin in bark[5]
Chemical Nature: phenolic content of plant contribute to its antioxidant property[7]
root extract was found to be contributing to antioxidant property of plant[7]
polyphenolic constituents constitute to antigenotoxic activity[15]
fruit extract showed significant reducing and anti-radical activity[33]
Water, methanol and ethanol extract of A. marmelos leaves show electron donating capacity[10]
Water, methanol and ethanol extract of A. marmelos leaves extracts were found to be stable at pH 4 and 7[10]
Radical scavenging property can be attributed to the presence of hydroxyl groups existing in the phenolic and flavonoid compounds in methanolic extracts of A. marmelos[34]
tannin in A.marmelos contribute to its astringent and antimicrobial properties [30]
Actions
& Indications:
Pharmcological Action-
anti-inflammatory[28], [35] antinociceptive and antipyretic activities in rats are exhibited by leaves of A. marmelos[36]
antioxidant[28],[10] in rats[27], in rabbits[9]
at higher concentrations it may act as a prooxidant[10]
antiartherogenic in rabbits[9]
anxiolytic and antidepressant activities in mice[16]
astringent, antidiarrheal antidysenteric, demulcent, antipyretic [35]
antimicrobial activity[22]
immunomodulator in mice[17]
antihyperlipidemic in rats[14]
antidiabetic in rats[18-sabu],[37]
analgesic in mice[38]
mild sedative[39]
the leaf extract showed 28% radical scavenging activity.[7]
antifungal and antibacterial[42]
hypogycemic in rats[43]
hepatoprotective in rats[45]

Therapeutic indications:
Preclinical study-
Dose dependent decrease in acetic acid and indomethacin-induced Inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) model in rat in vivo, following oral treatment with A. marmelos unripe fruit extract was observed[27]
A. marmelos fruit methnol extract treatment augmented immune activity by cellular and humoral mediated mechanisms more at low dose (100 mg/kg, orally) than high dose (500 mg/kg, orally)in mice[17]
Aegle marmelos leaves exhibited antihyperlipidaemic effect in rats with Isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction[40]
Useful in treatment of chronic diarrhea, dysentry, glardiasis[39]
Root improves apetite, relives nausea, and leaves proves useful in Diabetis mellitus[39]
Found to be effective in treatment of constipation, peptic ulcers, ear problems, respiratory disorders, insomnia[41]
Notes:
REFERENCES
1. Kumar S et al, Recent Trends in medicinal uses and health benefits of Indian traditional herbs Aegle Marmelos. The Pharma Innovation.2012;1(4):57-65.
http://www.thepharmajournal.com/vol1Issue4/7.html
2. Bansal Y, Bansal G, Analytical methods for standardization of Aegle marmelos: A review. J Pharm Educ Res 2011;2(2):37-44.
http://www.doc-developpement-durable.org/file/Arbres-Fruitiers/FICHES_ARBRES/Bael/
Analytical%20methods%20for%20standardization%20of%20Aegle%20marmelos.pdf
3. Chapter 18: Aegle marmelos; In: Medicinal Plants Cultivation & Their Uses, by Panda H, Asia-Pacific Business Press, Delhi, India, page no. 159.
https://books.google.com.sg/books?id=xGZNGMTyjOMC&pg=PA159
4. Patel AR et al, Aegle marmelos (Linn.): A therapeutic boon for human health. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy. 2012;3(2)159-163.
http://www.ijrap.net/admin/php/uploads/765_pdf.pdf
5. Yadav S, Sharma N, Srivastava J, Curative aspects of Aegle marmelos(Bael) in drug bioavailability. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015;4(3):621-633.
www.wjpps.com/download/article/1425125269.pdf
6. Basu D, Sen R, Alkaloids and coumarins from root-bark of Aegle marmelos. Phytochemistry 1974;13: 2329-2330.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(74)85057-0
7. Bramhachari PV et al, Phytochemical examination, Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa extracts. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2010;3(12):3023.
http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/74080265/phytochemical-examination-antioxidant-radical-scavenging-activity-aegle-marmelos-l-correa-extracts
8. Chauhan A et al, Suppression of fertility in male albino rats following the administration of 50% ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos. Contraception. 2007;76(6):474-81.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2007.08.002
9. Das S, Hakim A, Mittal A, Study of the antihyperlipidemic, antioxidative and antiatherogenic activity of Aegle marmelos Linn. in rabbit receiving high fat diet. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2012;5(4):69-72.
http://www.ajpcr.com/Vol5Issue4/1239.pdf
10. Reddy VP, Urooj A, Antioxidant properties and stability of aegle marmelos leaves extracts. J Food Sci Technol 2013;50(1):135–140.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0221-z
11. Agrawal A et al, Amelioration of chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis by Aegle marmelos, an Indian medicinal plant, fruit extract. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2012; 11(3):257– 266.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534735411417127
12. Agrawal A, Verma P, Goyal PK, Chemomodulatory effects of Aegle marmelos against DMBA induced skin aumorigenesis in Swiss Albino mice. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 2010; 11: 1311-1314.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21198283
13. Das UK et al, Effect of aqueous extract of leaf of Aegle marmelos on testicular activities in rats. IJPT 2006;5(1):21-25.
http://ijpt.iums.ac.ir/index.php/ijpt/article/view/060501021/217
14. Suriyamoorthy P et al, Anti hyperlipidemic effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos and Camella sinensis in oil fed hyperlipidemic rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014;6(2):338-341.
15. Kaur P et al, Antigenotoxic activity of polyphenolic rich extracts from Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa in human blood lymphocytes and E.coli PQ 37. Rec. Nat. Prod. 2009; 3(1) : 68-75.
http://www.acgpubs.org/RNP/2009/Volume%203/Issue%201/8-RNP-0807-35.pdf
16. Kothari S, Minda M, Tonpay SD, Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos leaves in mice. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;54(4):318-28.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21675029
17. Patel P, Asdaq S, Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic fruit extract of Aegle marmelos in experimental animals. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal 2010;18(3): 161–165.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2010.05.006
18. Sabu MC , Kuttan R, Antidiabetic activity of Aegle marmelos and its relationship with its antioxidant properties. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2004;48(1):81-8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15270373
19. Singh RP, Banerjee S, Rao AR, Effect of Aegle marmelos on biotransformation enzyme systems and protection against free-radical-mediated damage in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2000 ;52(8):991-1000.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1211/0022357001774714
20. Dhankhar S et al, Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa: A potential source of Phytomedicine. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2011;5(9):1497-1507.
http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380546385_Dhankhar%20et%20el.pdf
21. Govindachari TR, Premila MS, Some alkaloids from aegle marmelos. Phytochemistry 1983;22(3):755-757.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)86977-0
22. Mujeeb F, Bajpai P, Pathak N, Phytochemical evaluation, antimicrobial activity, and determination of bioactive components from leaves of Aegle marmelos. BioMed Research International 2014 Article ID 497606, 11 pages.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/497606
23. Yadav NP, Chanotia CS, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Leaves of Aegle Marmelos Linn. The Pharma Review November 2009;144-149.
http://staff.cimap.res.in/PublicationFiles/The_Pharma_Review_742_144.pdf
24. Sharma PC et al, A review on Bael tree. Natural Prodcut Radiance. 2007;6(2):171-178.
http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/7856/1/NPR%206(2)%20171-178.pdf
25. Manandhar MD et al, New alkaloids from Aegle marmelos. Phytochemistry 1978;17(10):1814-1815.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)88714-2
26. Remya R et al, In vitro effect of Aegle marmelos on human sperm motility. J. Med. Plant. res. 2009;3(12):1137-1139.
http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/JMPR/article-abstract/3584A1D15560
27. Behera JP et al, Effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit on inflammatory bowel disease. Indian J Pharmacol. 2012; 44(5): 614–618.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.100389
28. Rajan S et al, Antioxidant and phytochemical properties of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp. Int J Curr Pharm Res. 2011;3(2):65-70.
http://www.ijcpr.org/Issues/Vol3Issue2/306.pdf
29. Sharma BR, Rattan RK, Sharma P, Marmelene, an alkaloid, and other components of unripe fruits of Aegle Marmelos. Phytochemistry. 1981;20(11):2606-2607.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(81)83112-3
30. Yadav N et al, Rapid determination of polyphenol, vitamins, organic acids and sugars in Aegle marmelos using Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Journal of Pharmacy Research 2011;4(3):717-719.
31. Rahman MM et al, Chemical investigations of stem bark’s extracts of Aegle mermelos: (An initiative exploration pro medicinally important plant). Int. J. Biosci. 2012; 2(11):74-80.
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.654.4377&rep=rep1&type=pdf
32. Laphookhieo S et al, Chemical Constituents from Aegle marmelos.J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 2011;22(1):176-178.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532011000100024
33. Prakash D et al, Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits. J Complement Integr Med. 2011 Jan;8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2202/1553-3840.1513
34. Siddique NA et al, Evaluation of antioxidant activity, quantitative estimation of phenols and flavonoids in different parts of Aegle marmelos. Afr. J. Plant Sci. 2010; 4 (1):001-005.
http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-full-text-pdf/8F7047F11260
35. Maity P et al, Biological activities of crude extracts and chemical constituents of Bael, Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47(11):849-61.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20099458
36. Arul V, Miyazaki S, Dhananjayan R, Studies on the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of the leaves of Aegle marmelos Corr. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 ;96(1-2):159-63.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.09.013
37. Kamalakkannan N, Stanely Mainzen Prince P, Effect of Aegle marmelos Correa. (Bael) fruit extract on tissue antioxidants in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2003;41(11):1285-8.
http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/17211/1/IJEB%2041(11)%201285-1288.pdf
38. Shankarananth V et al, Analgesic activity of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos leaves. Fitoterapia. 2007;78(3):258-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17335994
39. Chapter 18: Aegle marmelos; In: Medicinal Plants Cultivation & Their Uses, by Panda H, Asia-Pacific Business Press, Delhi, India, page no. 160.
https://books.google.com.sg/books?id=xGZNGMTyjOMC&pg=PA160
40. Rajadurai M, Prince PS, Comparative effects of Aegle marmelos extract and alpha-tocopherol on serum lipids, lipid peroxides and cardiac enzyme levels in rats with isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Singapore Med J. 2005;46(2):78-81.
http://www.sma.org.sg/smj/4602/4602a4.pdf
41. Chapter 18: Aegle marmelos; In: Medicinal Plants Cultivation & Their Uses, by Panda H, Asia-Pacific Business Press, Delhi, India, page no. 161-162.
https://books.google.com.sg/books?id=xGZNGMTyjOMC&pg=PA161
42. Chakthong S et al, Alkaloid and coumarins from the green fruits of Aegle marmelos. Phytochemistry. 2012;75:108-13.
http://dx.doi.org/1016/j.phytochem.2011.11.018
43. Upadhya S et al, A study of hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2004;48(4):476-80.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15907058
44. K Sudharameshwari, J Radhika, Antibacterial Screening of Aegle Marmelos, Lawsonia Inermis and Albizzia Libbeck. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2007; 4 (2): 199 - 204.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2816442/pdf/AJT0402-0199.pdf
45. Khan TH, Sultana S, Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Aegle marmelos Correa. against CCl4-induced oxidative stress and early tumor events. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009;24(2):320-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14756360802167754
46. Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Baliga MS, Fruit extract of Aegle marmelos protects mice against radiation-induced lethality. Integr Cancer Ther. 2004;3(4):323-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534735404270641
47. Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Inhibition of radiation-induced clastogenicity by Aegle marmelos (L.) correa in mice bone marrow exposed to different doses of gamma-radiation. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2007;26(2):111-24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327107071867
48. Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Baliga MS, Evaluation of the radioprotective effect of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to different doses of gamma-radiation: a micronucleus study. Mutagenesis. 2003;18(4):387-93.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mutage/geg011