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Adhatoda vasica

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GENERAL FEATURES

Name: Adhatoda vasica
Synonyms/Scientific names:Adhatoda vasica(L.) Nees[1],[2],[3],[4]
Justitia adhatoda L.[1],[5],[6]
Adhatoda zeylanica Medic. [1],[7]
Synonyms/common names :vasaka[1],[4],[8],Malabar nut tree[7],[6],Adulsa[1],[9]
Trade name:
One of the components of KanJang® oral solution[10]
Description: Family : Acanthaceae[4],[8],[5]
It is a small, evergreen, perennial shrub, which reaches an average height of three meters[6]
Chemical Nature:
Extract used: seed:
Leaves:
aqueous extract[11]
methanolic extract[12],[5]
ethanolic extract[13],[14]
ethanolic[15],[16], and methanolic[17] extract were used in radioprotective studies
chloroform and n-butanol fractions[14]
methanolic, chloroform and diethyl ether extracts[18]
Aerial parts:
Methanol, Ethanol, Ethyl acetate, Chloroform, Hexane extract[19]
root bark:
Phyto-constituents
(active):
Carbohydrate, Terrapins, Triterpenoids, Flavonoids, Amino acids, Glycosides, Alkaloids, Steroids[19]
vasicine and vasicinone[3] vasicine acetate, 2-acetyl benzyl amine, vasicinolone[20]
Leaves:
alkaloids, reducing sugar, anthraquinones, saponins, flavanods and tannins[9]
quinazoline alkaloid : 1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-5- methoxypyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazoline-3-ol[21]
alkaloid : vasicinone[2],[22]
vasicine and vasicinol[12],[22]
pyrroloquinazoline alkaloids : 1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo(2,1-b)-quinazolin- 9-one-3R-hydroxy-3(2'-dimethylamino phenyl (desmethoxyaniflorine) and 7-methoxy-3R-hydroxy-1,2,3,9- tetrahydropyrrolo-[2,1-b]-quinazolin-9-one(7-methoxyvasicinone)[23]
Alkaloids- Quinazoline,Flavonoids,Tannins, Vasicinone,Essential oil.[18]
Fruit:
Seeds
Aerial parts:
roots:
1,2,3,4,9,11 hexahydro pyrrolo (2,1-b) quinazolin-3,11 diol, Vasicinone[24]
9-acetamido- 3,4-dihydropyrido-(3,4-b)-indole and Oethyl- α-D-galactoside, sitosterol β-D-glucoside, D-galactose and deoxyvasicinone[25]
adhatonine, vasicinone, vasicinolone, vasicol, vasicine and vasicinol[26],[22]
Stem:
quinazoline alkaloids: vasicine and vasicinone[22]
Actions
& Indications:
Pharmcological Action-
hepatoprotective in rats[11]
antitussive activity in Guinea pigs and rabbits[27]
anti-ulcer activity in experimental rats[8]
Antiinflammatory activity of an alkaloid from plant extract in animal[20],[5]
Nephroprotective in rats[28]
immunostimulatory efffect in mice[29]
Therapeutic indications:
Adhatoda vasica in form of syrup(Vasa) has been proven effective against non-ulcer dyspepsia. It benefitted patients with hyperacidity and hyperchlorhydria[30]
It is traditionally used as a remedy for colds, cough, bronchitis and asthma[31],[32],[33]
Preclinical study-
It is shown to have antitubercular effects[32]
Extract of aerial parts of A. vasica promoted wound healing activity in Swiss albino mice[19]
methanolic, chloroform and Diethyl ether extract ointment (10%w/w) of Adhatoda vasica showed a significant excision wound healing effect in Wistar albino rats[18]
It is demonstrated to have a antidiabetic potential in vitro[14]
Notes:
REFERENCES
1. 4. Adhatoda vasica ;In: Home Remedies, Volume 2 by Sairam TV, 2003, Page no. 51.
https://books.google.com.sg/books?id=VAdtAwAAQBAJ&pg=PT51
2. Amin AH, Mehta DR, A bronchodilator alkaloid (Vasicinone) from Adhatoda vasica Nees. Nature. 1959;184:1317.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/1841317a0
3. Avula B et al, Quantitative determination of vasicine and vasicinone in Adhatoda vasica by high performance capillary electrophoresis. Pharmazie. 2008;63(1):20-2.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18271297
4. Roja G et al, Accumulation of vasicine and vasicinone in tissue cultures of Adhatoda vasica and evaluation of the free radical-scavenging activities of the various crude extracts. Food Chemistry. 2011; 126(3):1033–1038.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.11.115
5. Chakraborty A, Brantner AH, Study of alkaloids from Adhatoda vasica Nees on their antiinflammatory activity. Phytother. Res. 2001;15: 532–534.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.737
6. Singh TP, Singh OM, Singh HB, Adhatoda vasica Nees: phytochemical and pharmacological profile. The Natural Products Journal. 2011; 1 :29-39.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2210316311101010029
7. Claeson UP et al, Adhatoda vasica: a critical review of ethnopharmacological and toxicological data. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2000; 72:1–20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00225-7
8. Shrivastava N et al, Anti-ulcer activity of Adhatoda vasica Nees. J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(2):43-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17182484
9. Kanthale PR, Panchal VH, Pharmacognostic Study of Adhatoda vasica Nees. Bioscience Discovery. 2015; 6(1): 49-53.
http://biosciencediscovery.com/Vol%206%20No1%202015/Kanthale49-53.pdf
10. Narimanian M et al, Randomized trial of a fixed combination (KanJang®) of herbal extracts containing Adhatoda vasica, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. Phytomedicine. 2005; 12(8):539–547.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2004.10.001
11. Bhattacharyya D et al, Hepatoprotective activity of Adhatoda vasica aqueous leaf extract on D-galactosamine-induced liver damage in rats. Fitoterapia. 2005; 76(2):223–225.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2004.10.014
12. Gao H et al, Inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase by Adhatoda vasica Nees. Food Chemistry. 2008; 108(3):965–972.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.12.002
13. Samarth RM et al, Evaluation of antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities of certain radioprotective plant extracts. Food Chemistry. 2008;106:868–873.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.05.005
14. Vadivelan R et al, Inhibitory effect of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities of Adhatoda vasica Nees. Ejpmr. 2015;2(2):375-380.
http://www.ejpmr.com/admin/assets/article_issue/1425966587.pdf
15. Chincholkar T, Malla TM, Ganesh N, Study of protective potential of Adhatoda vasica Extract against radiation induced genotoxicity: An in-vivo analysis. International Journal of Phytomedicine. 2012; 4(1) :48-53.
http://www.arjournals.org/index.php/ijpm/article/view/495/444
16. Kaur I, Kumar A, Sharma S, Adhatoda vasica: effect of administering ethanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica on blood count and SOD enzyme activity against exposure to γradiations. International Journal of Pharmaceutical sciences and research. 2013;4:4016-4026.
http://ijpsr.com/bft-article/adhatoda-vasica-effect-of-administering-ethanolic-extract-of-adhatoda-vasica-on-blood-count-and-sod-enzyme-activity-against-exposure-to-%CE%B3-radiations/
17. Sharma P et al, Radiation protective potentiality of Adhatoda vasica. International Journal of Phytomedicine. 2009; 1: 39-43.
http://www.arjournals.org/index.php/ijpm/article/view/29
18. Vinothapooshan G, Sundar K, Wound healing effect of various extracts of Adhatoda vasica. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2010;1(4):530-536.
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.185.4609&rep=rep1&type=pdf
19. Subhashini S, Arunachalam KD, Investigations on the phytochemical activities and wound healing properties of Adhatoda vasica leave in Swiss albino mice. Afr. J. Plant Sci. 2011;5(2):133-145.
http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/AJPS/article-full-text-pdf/E5F1A738837
20. Singh B, Sharma RA, Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties of pyrroloquinazoline alkaloids from Adhatoda vasica Nees. Phytomedicine. 2013;20(5):441-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2012.12.015
21. Chowdhury BK, Bhattacharyya P, A further quinazoline alkaloid from Adhatoda vasica. Phytochemistry. 1985; 24(12)1985:3080-3082.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(85)80070-4
22. Das C, Poi R, Chowdhury A, HPTLC Determination of Vasicine and Vasicinone in Adhatoda vasica. Phytochem. Anal. 2005;16: 90–92.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002.pca.817
23. Thappa RK et al, Two pyrroloquinazolines from Adhatoda vasica. Phytochemistry. 1996;42(5):1485-1488.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(96)00120-3
24. Dhar KL et al, Vasicol, a new alkaloid from Adhatoda vasica. Phytochemistry. 1981;20(2):319-321.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(81)85115-1
25. Jain MP et al, Novel nor-harmal alkaloid from Adhatoda vasica. Phytochemistry. 1980;19(8):1880-1882.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031- 9422(00)83845-5
26. Jain MP, Sharma VK, Phytochemical investigation of roots of Adhatoda vasica. Planta Med. 1982;46(4):250.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-971226
27. Dhuley JN, Antitussive effect of Adhatoda vasica extract on mechanical or chemical stimulation-induced coughing in animals. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;67(3):361-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00074-4
28. Kumar A et al, Evaluation of renal protective activity of Adhatoda zeylanica (medic) leaves extract in wistar rats. NUJHS. 2013;3(4):45-56.
http://www.nitte.edu.in/journal/dec%202013/45-56%20Arunachalam%20Kumar.pdf
29. Adhikary R et al, Immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant properties of methanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica Nees leaf after particulate antigen stimulation in mice. Journal of Pharmacy Research 2014;8(10):1520-1537.
http://jprsolutions.info/newfiles/journal-file-56c32acb808b69.85482362.pdf
30. Chaturvedi GN et al, Clinical trial of Adhatoda vasica syrup (vasa) in the patients of non-ulcer dyspepsia (amlapitta).Anc Sci Life. 1983;3(1):19-23.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3331538/
31. Bronchial Asthma: Principles of Diagnosis and Treatment, 4th edition, edited by Gershwin ME, Albertson TE, Springer, 2001, page no. 366.
https://books.google.com.sg/books?id=-P0qBgAAQBAJ&pg=PT366
32. Gupta KC, Chopra IC, Antitubercular effect of an extract of Adhatoda vasica. Nature. 1954; 173: 1194.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/1731194a0
33. Appendix 13:Herbs and Natural supplements; In : Mosby's Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing and Health Professions, 3rd Australian and New Zealand edition by Harris P, Nagy S, Vardaxis N, Elsevier, 2014, page no. 2066.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=_itVCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA2066