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Adhatoda vasica

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Name: Adhatoda vasica
Synonyms/Scientific names:Adhatoda vasica(L.) Nees[1],[2],[3],[4]
Justitia adhatoda L.[1],[5],[6]
Adhatoda zeylanica Medic. [1],[7]
Synonyms/common names :vasaka[1],[4],[8],Malabar nut tree[7],[6],Adulsa[1],[9]
Trade name:
One of the components of KanJang® oral solution[10]
Description: Family : Acanthaceae[4],[8],[5]
It is a small, evergreen, perennial shrub, which reaches an average height of three meters[6]
Chemical Nature:
Extract used: seed:
aqueous extract[11]
methanolic extract[12],[5]
ethanolic extract[13],[14]
ethanolic[15],[16], and methanolic[17] extract were used in radioprotective studies
chloroform and n-butanol fractions[14]
methanolic, chloroform and diethyl ether extracts[18]
Aerial parts:
Methanol, Ethanol, Ethyl acetate, Chloroform, Hexane extract[19]
root bark:
Carbohydrate, Terrapins, Triterpenoids, Flavonoids, Amino acids, Glycosides, Alkaloids, Steroids[19]
vasicine and vasicinone[3] vasicine acetate, 2-acetyl benzyl amine, vasicinolone[20]
alkaloids, reducing sugar, anthraquinones, saponins, flavanods and tannins[9]
quinazoline alkaloid : 1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-5- methoxypyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazoline-3-ol[21]
alkaloid : vasicinone[2],[22]
vasicine and vasicinol[12],[22]
pyrroloquinazoline alkaloids : 1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo(2,1-b)-quinazolin- 9-one-3R-hydroxy-3(2'-dimethylamino phenyl (desmethoxyaniflorine) and 7-methoxy-3R-hydroxy-1,2,3,9- tetrahydropyrrolo-[2,1-b]-quinazolin-9-one(7-methoxyvasicinone)[23]
Alkaloids- Quinazoline,Flavonoids,Tannins, Vasicinone,Essential oil.[18]
Aerial parts:
1,2,3,4,9,11 hexahydro pyrrolo (2,1-b) quinazolin-3,11 diol, Vasicinone[24]
9-acetamido- 3,4-dihydropyrido-(3,4-b)-indole and Oethyl- α-D-galactoside, sitosterol β-D-glucoside, D-galactose and deoxyvasicinone[25]
adhatonine, vasicinone, vasicinolone, vasicol, vasicine and vasicinol[26],[22]
quinazoline alkaloids: vasicine and vasicinone[22]
& Indications:
Pharmcological Action-
hepatoprotective in rats[11]
antitussive activity in Guinea pigs and rabbits[27]
anti-ulcer activity in experimental rats[8]
Antiinflammatory activity of an alkaloid from plant extract in animal[20],[5]
Nephroprotective in rats[28]
immunostimulatory efffect in mice[29]
Therapeutic indications:
Adhatoda vasica in form of syrup(Vasa) has been proven effective against non-ulcer dyspepsia. It benefitted patients with hyperacidity and hyperchlorhydria[30]
It is traditionally used as a remedy for colds, cough, bronchitis and asthma[31],[32],[33]
Preclinical study-
It is shown to have antitubercular effects[32]
Extract of aerial parts of A. vasica promoted wound healing activity in Swiss albino mice[19]
methanolic, chloroform and Diethyl ether extract ointment (10%w/w) of Adhatoda vasica showed a significant excision wound healing effect in Wistar albino rats[18]
It is demonstrated to have a antidiabetic potential in vitro[14]
1. 4. Adhatoda vasica ;In: Home Remedies, Volume 2 by Sairam TV, 2003, Page no. 51.
2. Amin AH, Mehta DR, A bronchodilator alkaloid (Vasicinone) from Adhatoda vasica Nees. Nature. 1959;184:1317.
3. Avula B et al, Quantitative determination of vasicine and vasicinone in Adhatoda vasica by high performance capillary electrophoresis. Pharmazie. 2008;63(1):20-2.
4. Roja G et al, Accumulation of vasicine and vasicinone in tissue cultures of Adhatoda vasica and evaluation of the free radical-scavenging activities of the various crude extracts. Food Chemistry. 2011; 126(3):1033–1038.
5. Chakraborty A, Brantner AH, Study of alkaloids from Adhatoda vasica Nees on their antiinflammatory activity. Phytother. Res. 2001;15: 532–534.
6. Singh TP, Singh OM, Singh HB, Adhatoda vasica Nees: phytochemical and pharmacological profile. The Natural Products Journal. 2011; 1 :29-39.
7. Claeson UP et al, Adhatoda vasica: a critical review of ethnopharmacological and toxicological data. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2000; 72:1–20.
8. Shrivastava N et al, Anti-ulcer activity of Adhatoda vasica Nees. J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(2):43-9.
9. Kanthale PR, Panchal VH, Pharmacognostic Study of Adhatoda vasica Nees. Bioscience Discovery. 2015; 6(1): 49-53.
10. Narimanian M et al, Randomized trial of a fixed combination (KanJang®) of herbal extracts containing Adhatoda vasica, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. Phytomedicine. 2005; 12(8):539–547.
11. Bhattacharyya D et al, Hepatoprotective activity of Adhatoda vasica aqueous leaf extract on D-galactosamine-induced liver damage in rats. Fitoterapia. 2005; 76(2):223–225.
12. Gao H et al, Inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase by Adhatoda vasica Nees. Food Chemistry. 2008; 108(3):965–972.
13. Samarth RM et al, Evaluation of antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities of certain radioprotective plant extracts. Food Chemistry. 2008;106:868–873.
14. Vadivelan R et al, Inhibitory effect of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities of Adhatoda vasica Nees. Ejpmr. 2015;2(2):375-380.
15. Chincholkar T, Malla TM, Ganesh N, Study of protective potential of Adhatoda vasica Extract against radiation induced genotoxicity: An in-vivo analysis. International Journal of Phytomedicine. 2012; 4(1) :48-53.
16. Kaur I, Kumar A, Sharma S, Adhatoda vasica: effect of administering ethanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica on blood count and SOD enzyme activity against exposure to γradiations. International Journal of Pharmaceutical sciences and research. 2013;4:4016-4026.
17. Sharma P et al, Radiation protective potentiality of Adhatoda vasica. International Journal of Phytomedicine. 2009; 1: 39-43.
18. Vinothapooshan G, Sundar K, Wound healing effect of various extracts of Adhatoda vasica. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2010;1(4):530-536.
19. Subhashini S, Arunachalam KD, Investigations on the phytochemical activities and wound healing properties of Adhatoda vasica leave in Swiss albino mice. Afr. J. Plant Sci. 2011;5(2):133-145.
20. Singh B, Sharma RA, Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties of pyrroloquinazoline alkaloids from Adhatoda vasica Nees. Phytomedicine. 2013;20(5):441-5.
21. Chowdhury BK, Bhattacharyya P, A further quinazoline alkaloid from Adhatoda vasica. Phytochemistry. 1985; 24(12)1985:3080-3082.
22. Das C, Poi R, Chowdhury A, HPTLC Determination of Vasicine and Vasicinone in Adhatoda vasica. Phytochem. Anal. 2005;16: 90–92.
23. Thappa RK et al, Two pyrroloquinazolines from Adhatoda vasica. Phytochemistry. 1996;42(5):1485-1488.
24. Dhar KL et al, Vasicol, a new alkaloid from Adhatoda vasica. Phytochemistry. 1981;20(2):319-321.
25. Jain MP et al, Novel nor-harmal alkaloid from Adhatoda vasica. Phytochemistry. 1980;19(8):1880-1882.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031- 9422(00)83845-5
26. Jain MP, Sharma VK, Phytochemical investigation of roots of Adhatoda vasica. Planta Med. 1982;46(4):250.
27. Dhuley JN, Antitussive effect of Adhatoda vasica extract on mechanical or chemical stimulation-induced coughing in animals. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;67(3):361-5.
28. Kumar A et al, Evaluation of renal protective activity of Adhatoda zeylanica (medic) leaves extract in wistar rats. NUJHS. 2013;3(4):45-56.
29. Adhikary R et al, Immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant properties of methanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica Nees leaf after particulate antigen stimulation in mice. Journal of Pharmacy Research 2014;8(10):1520-1537.
30. Chaturvedi GN et al, Clinical trial of Adhatoda vasica syrup (vasa) in the patients of non-ulcer dyspepsia (amlapitta).Anc Sci Life. 1983;3(1):19-23.
31. Bronchial Asthma: Principles of Diagnosis and Treatment, 4th edition, edited by Gershwin ME, Albertson TE, Springer, 2001, page no. 366.
32. Gupta KC, Chopra IC, Antitubercular effect of an extract of Adhatoda vasica. Nature. 1954; 173: 1194.
33. Appendix 13:Herbs and Natural supplements; In : Mosby's Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing and Health Professions, 3rd Australian and New Zealand edition by Harris P, Nagy S, Vardaxis N, Elsevier, 2014, page no. 2066.