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Acorus calamus

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General Features                  Clinical Study                  Chemical Intervention                 Pharmacological Aspects                 
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GENERAL FEATURES

Name: Acorus calamus
Synonyms/Scientific names: Acorus calamus Linn,[1]
Synonyms/common names :
Sweet flag, calamus, Vachaa[1]
Trade name:
Description: Family : Araceae[2],[1]
Extract used: Rhizome:
Aqueous-ethanol extract has been usedfor radioprotection study[3]
Phyto-constituents
(active):
Rhizome:
sesquiterpenes: 1 beta,7 alpha(H)-cadinane-4 alpha,6 alpha,10 alpha-triol,
1 alpha,5 beta-guaiane-10 alpha-O-ethyl-4 beta,6 beta-diol (2) and
6 beta,7 beta(H)-cadinane-1 alpha,4 alpha, 10 alpha-triol[4]
2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, 2,5-dimethoxybenzoquinone, galangin and sitosterol acoradin, isoeugenol methyl ether (I), γ-asarone, cis-asarone, trans-asarone, acoramone, asarylaldehyde[5]
essential oil
(z)-asarone,(E)asarone, small amounts of γ-asarone, (Z)-methyl isoeugenol, and linalool[6]
root essential oil
β-gurjunene, (Z)-asarone, aristolene, and (E)-asarone[7]
Actions
& Indications:
Pharmcological Action-
antidepressant in rats[8]
analgesic and anticonvulsant in mice[9]
anti-inflammatory in human in vitro[10]
Therapeutic indications:
Rhizome is traditionally used as hypotensive agent, spasmolytic, used for bronchial catarrh, chronic diarrhoea and dysentry[1]
Preclinical study-
it is suggested to be useful in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in human[11]
ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of Acorus calamus LIinn. against noise stress (30 d, 100 dBA/4h/d) induced changes in the rat brain.[12]
Notes:
REFERENCES
1. Acorus calamus Linn. ; In :Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary by Khare CP, Springer, 2007, page no. 16.
https://books.google.com.sg/books?id=gMwLwbUwtfkC&pg=PA16
2. 13. Essential Oil Profiles; In : Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals, second Edition, by Tisserand R, Young R, Churchil Livingstone Elsevier, 2014 page no. 226.
https://books.google.com.sg/books?id=DbEKAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA226
3. Divyasree S, Nair CKK, Protection of DNA and membrane from γ-radiation induced damage by the extract of Acorus calamus Linn.: An in vitro study. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 2010;29: 302–307.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2010.02.006
4. Dong W, Yang D, Lu R, Chemical constituents from the rhizome of Acorus calamus L. Planta Med. 2010 ;76(5):454-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s00291186217
5. Patra A, Mitra AK, Constituents of Acorus calamus: Structure of Acoramone. Carbon-13 NMR Spectra of Cis- and Trans-Asarone. J. Nat. Prod. 1981; 44 (6):668–669.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np50018a007
6. Satyal P et al, Chemical compositions, phytotoxicity, and biological activities of Acorus calamus essential oils from Nepal. Nat Prod Commun. 2013;8(8):1179-81.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24079199
7. Verma RS, Padalia RC, Chauhan A, Chemical composition of root essential oil of Acorus calamus L. National Academy Science Letters 2015;38(2):121–125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40009-014-0304-x
8. Tripathi AK, Singh RH, Experimental evaluation of antidepressant effect of Vacha (Acorus calamus) in animal models of depression. Ayu. 2010 ; 31(2): 153–158.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/09748520.72374
9. Jayaraman R, Anitha T, Joshi VD, Analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of Acorus calamus roots in mice. International Journal of PharmTech Research. 2010;2(1):552-555.
http://sphinxsai.com/sphinxsaivol_2no.1/pharmtech_vol_2no.1/PharmTech_Vol_2No.1PDF/PT=87%20(552-555).pdf
10. Kim H, Han TH, Lee SG, Antiinflammatory activity of a water extract of Acorus calamus L. leaves on keratinocyte HaCaT cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;122(1):149-56.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2008.12.011
11. Bhattacharya D et al, A clinical study on the management of generalized anxiety disorder with Vaca (Acorus calamus). Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 2011; 10 (4):668-671.
http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/12818/4/IJTK%2010(4)%20668-671.pdf
12. Sundaramahalingam M et al, Protective Effect of Acorus calamus LINN on Free Radical Scavengers and Lipid Peroxidation in Discrete Regions of Brain against Noise Stress Exposed Rat. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2005;28(12): 2327—2330.
http://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.28.2327