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"Radiosensitisers and Radioprotectors"

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Syzygium cumini

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General Features                  Clinical Study                  Chemical Intervention                 Pharmacological Aspects                 
Radiobiological Aspects                  Biological Models                  Biological Target                  Toxicity                 


Action of Extract: Hydroalcoholic seed extract treatment protected mice against the radiation-induced gastrointestinal as well as bone marrow death.[1]
Action on cell cycle:
Target: Nucleic Acid
Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of seed extract showed significant protective effects against hydroxyl radical induced strand breaks in pBR322 DNA[2]
leaf extract is suggested to haveinhibited the activation of NF-κB and COX-II mRNA[3],[4]
Reduction in the radiation-induced micronuclei in mice splenocytes by leaf extraxt is suggested to be to the error-free DNA repair[3]
leaf extract reduced radiation-induced DNA damage and complex chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro[5]
seed extract caused increase in GSH level and activity of GST, SOD and CAT in mice [2],[6]
seed extract significant inhibited hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice [2] seed extract decreased lipid peroxidation in gastric mucosa of rats[7]
leaf extract inhibited lipid peroxidation in mice brain homogenate in dose-dependent manner[3]
methanolic stem bark extract decreased the degradation of deoxyribose by scavenging the hydroxyl radical[8]
Mechanism: In a cell free system, leaf extract inhibited the formation of OH, superoxide anion radical, DPPH, and ABTS+ free radicals in a concentration dependent manner.[3], and inhibition of radiation-induced free radical formation by leaf and seed extract is suggested to be its one of the mechanisms of radioprotection. It may block radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, also upregulate antioxidant mechanisms of cells, thereby reducing DNA damage[6], It is speculated to have also upregulated DNA polymerase and efficiently repaired the lesions induced by radiation in the cellular genome[3],[4]
Ellagic acid, gallic acid, Quercetin, Oleanolic acid are the constituents said to be responsible for radioprotective effect of Syzygium cumini [9],[1]
Scavenging of free radicals by seed and leaf extract is reported to have played an important role in providing the protection against the radiation-induced damage, which is attributed to the presence of flavonoids(quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin) and ellagic acid in seed and leaf extract.[1],[6],[10],[4]
fruit pulp ameliorated the H2O2-induced adverse effects on rat Leydig cells in vitro[11]
fruit skin exhibited DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radical-scavenging activity[12],[13]
leaf extract exhibited a dose-dependent NO scavenging activity[14]
Seed and leaf extract exhibited significant DPPH, ABTS, Nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in vitro and also antioxidative activity in vitro[15],[16], phenolic components from bark exhibited DPPH scavenging activity[17],[18], ellagitannin from fruit extract showed DPPH scavenging activity in vitro[19]
Gallic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin, two triterpene acids: Oleanolic acid and Ursolic acid found in plant extracts are shown to possess the ability to decrease undesirable radiation damage [20],[21],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27]
1. Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, Venkatesh P, Influence of seed extract of Syzygium Cumini (Jamun) on mice exposed to different doses of γ -radiation. J. Radiat. Res. 2005; 46(1): 59–65.
2. Arun R et al, Role of Syzygium cumini seed extract in the chemoprevention of in vivo genomic damage and oxidative stress. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;134(2):329-33.
3. Jagetia GC, Shetty PC, Vidyasagar MS, Inhibition of radiation-induced DNA damage by Jamun, Syzygium cumini, in the cultured splenocytes of mice exposed to different doses of γ-radiation. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 2012; 11(2): 141– 153.
4. Jagetia GC, Shetty PC, Vidyasagar MS, Treatment of mice with leaf extract of jamun(Syzygium cumini Linn. Skeels)protects against the radiation-induced damage in the intestinal mucosa of mice exposed to different doses of γ-radiation. Pharmacologyonline. 2008; 1: 169-195.
5. Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, Syzygium cumini (Jamun) reduces the radiation-induced DNA damage in the cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes: a preliminary study. Toxicology Letters. 2002; 132(1) : 19–25.
6. Sharma A, Soyal D, Goyal PK, Radioprotection by seed extract of Syzygium cumini in normal tissues of fibrosarcoma bearing mice. Indian Society for Radiation Biology, Delhi (India); K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore (India); 90 p; Oct 2013; p. 61; ICRB-2013: international conference on radiation biology and clinical applications; Mangalore (India); 25-27 Oct 2013.
7. Chaturvedi A et al, Effect of ethanolic extract of Eugenia jambolana seeds on gastric ulceration and secretion in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;51(2):131-40.
8. Sudeep HV, Ramachandra YL, Rai SP, Investigation of in vitro, in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Eugenia jambolana Lam. stem bark. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2011;4(11):4167-4171.
9. Baliga MS, Anticancer, chemopreventive and radioprotective potential of Black Plum (Eugenia Jambolana Lam.). Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 2011; 12: 3-15.
10. Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, Evaluation of the radioprotective effect of the leaf extract of Syzygium cumini (Jamun) in mice exposed to a lethal dose of γ-irradiation. Nahrung/Food. 2003;47(3):181 – 185.
11. Anand H et al, Cytoprotective effects of fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana on H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat Leydig cells in vitro. Andrologia. 2013;45(3):145-157.
12. Banerjee A, Dasgupta N, De B, In vitro study of antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini fruit. Food Chemistry. 2005;90(4):727–733.
13. Benherlal PS, Arumughan C, Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant studies on Syzygium cumini fruit. J Sci Food Agric. 2007;87(14):2560-9.
14. Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, The evaluation of Nitric Oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: A preliminary study. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2004; 7(3): 343- 348.
15. Nair LK, Begum M, Geetha S, In vitro-Antioxidant activity of the seed and leaf extracts of syzygium cumini. IOSR Journal Of Environmental Science, Toxicology And Food Technology. 2013;7(1):54-62.
16. Ruan ZP, Zhang LL, Lin YM, Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaves. Molecules. 2008; 13: 2545-2556.
17. Sultana B, Anwar F, Przybylski R, Antioxidant activity of phenolic components present in barks of Azadirachta indica, Terminalia arjuna, Acacia nilotica, and Eugenia jambolana Lam. trees. Food Chemistry 2007;104(3): 1106–1114.
18. Tong WY et al, Inhibiting enzymatic starch digestion by hydrolyzable tannins isolated from Eugenia jambolana. LWT - Food Science and Technology 2014;59(1):389–395.
19. Zhang LL, Lin YM, Antioxidant tannins from Syzygium cumini fruit. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2009;8 (10):2301-2309.
20. Hsu HY, Yang JJ, Lin CC, Effects of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid on inhibiting tumor growth and enhancing the recovery of hematopoietic system postirradiation in mice. Cancer Lett. 1997;111(1-2):7-13.
21. Gandhi NM, Nair CK, Protection of DNA and membrane from gamma radiation induced damage by gallic acid. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;278(1-2):111-7.
22. Nemavarkar P, Chourasia BK, Pasupathy K, Evaluation of radioprotective action of compounds using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2004;23(2):145-51.
23. Bhosle SM, Huilgol NG, Mishra KP, Enhancement of radiation-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in tumor cells by ellagic acid. Clin Chim Acta. 2005;359(1-2):89-100.
24. Devipriya N et al, Quercetin ameliorates gamma radiation-induced DNA damage and biochemical changes in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mutat Res. 2008;654(1):1-7.
25. Benkovic V et al, Radioprotective effects of propolis and quercetin in gamma-irradiated mice evaluated by the alkaline comet assay. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(10):851-8.
26. Benkovic V et al, Radioprotective effects of quercetin and ethanolic extract of propolis in gamma-irradiated mice. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2009 ;60(2):129-38.
27. Benkovic V et al, Evaluation of radioprotective effects of propolis and quercetin on human white blood cells in vitro. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31(9):1778-85.