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"Radiosensitisers and Radioprotectors"

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Syzygium cumini

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General Features                  Clinical Study                  Chemical Intervention                 Pharmacological Aspects                 
Radiobiological Aspects                  Biological Models                  Biological Target                  Toxicity                 


BIOLOGICAL TARGET

Action of Extract: Hydroalcoholic seed extract treatment protected mice against the radiation-induced gastrointestinal as well as bone marrow death.[1]
Action on cell cycle:
Target: Nucleic Acid
Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of seed extract showed significant protective effects against hydroxyl radical induced strand breaks in pBR322 DNA[2]
leaf extract is suggested to haveinhibited the activation of NF-κB and COX-II mRNA[3],[4]
Reduction in the radiation-induced micronuclei in mice splenocytes by leaf extraxt is suggested to be to the error-free DNA repair[3]
leaf extract reduced radiation-induced DNA damage and complex chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro[5]
proteins:
seed extract caused increase in GSH level and activity of GST, SOD and CAT in mice [2],[6]
Lipids:
seed extract significant inhibited hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice [2] seed extract decreased lipid peroxidation in gastric mucosa of rats[7]
leaf extract inhibited lipid peroxidation in mice brain homogenate in dose-dependent manner[3]
sugars:
methanolic stem bark extract decreased the degradation of deoxyribose by scavenging the hydroxyl radical[8]
Mechanism: In a cell free system, leaf extract inhibited the formation of OH, superoxide anion radical, DPPH, and ABTS+ free radicals in a concentration dependent manner.[3], and inhibition of radiation-induced free radical formation by leaf and seed extract is suggested to be its one of the mechanisms of radioprotection. It may block radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, also upregulate antioxidant mechanisms of cells, thereby reducing DNA damage[6], It is speculated to have also upregulated DNA polymerase and efficiently repaired the lesions induced by radiation in the cellular genome[3],[4]
Ellagic acid, gallic acid, Quercetin, Oleanolic acid are the constituents said to be responsible for radioprotective effect of Syzygium cumini [9],[1]
Scavenging of free radicals by seed and leaf extract is reported to have played an important role in providing the protection against the radiation-induced damage, which is attributed to the presence of flavonoids(quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin) and ellagic acid in seed and leaf extract.[1],[6],[10],[4]
fruit pulp ameliorated the H2O2-induced adverse effects on rat Leydig cells in vitro[11]
fruit skin exhibited DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radical-scavenging activity[12],[13]
leaf extract exhibited a dose-dependent NO scavenging activity[14]
Seed and leaf extract exhibited significant DPPH, ABTS, Nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in vitro and also antioxidative activity in vitro[15],[16], phenolic components from bark exhibited DPPH scavenging activity[17],[18], ellagitannin from fruit extract showed DPPH scavenging activity in vitro[19]
Gallic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin, two triterpene acids: Oleanolic acid and Ursolic acid found in plant extracts are shown to possess the ability to decrease undesirable radiation damage [20],[21],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27]
REFERENCES
1. Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, Venkatesh P, Influence of seed extract of Syzygium Cumini (Jamun) on mice exposed to different doses of γ -radiation. J. Radiat. Res. 2005; 46(1): 59–65.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1269/jrr.46.59
2. Arun R et al, Role of Syzygium cumini seed extract in the chemoprevention of in vivo genomic damage and oxidative stress. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;134(2):329-33.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.12.014
3. Jagetia GC, Shetty PC, Vidyasagar MS, Inhibition of radiation-induced DNA damage by Jamun, Syzygium cumini, in the cultured splenocytes of mice exposed to different doses of γ-radiation. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 2012; 11(2): 141– 153.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534735411413261
4. Jagetia GC, Shetty PC, Vidyasagar MS, Treatment of mice with leaf extract of jamun(Syzygium cumini Linn. Skeels)protects against the radiation-induced damage in the intestinal mucosa of mice exposed to different doses of γ-radiation. Pharmacologyonline. 2008; 1: 169-195.
http://pharmacologyonline.silae.it/files/archives/2008/vol1/18_Ganesh.pdf
5. Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, Syzygium cumini (Jamun) reduces the radiation-induced DNA damage in the cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes: a preliminary study. Toxicology Letters. 2002; 132(1) : 19–25.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4274(02)00032-2
6. Sharma A, Soyal D, Goyal PK, Radioprotection by seed extract of Syzygium cumini in normal tissues of fibrosarcoma bearing mice. Indian Society for Radiation Biology, Delhi (India); K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore (India); 90 p; Oct 2013; p. 61; ICRB-2013: international conference on radiation biology and clinical applications; Mangalore (India); 25-27 Oct 2013.
https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45108336
7. Chaturvedi A et al, Effect of ethanolic extract of Eugenia jambolana seeds on gastric ulceration and secretion in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;51(2):131-40.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18175656
8. Sudeep HV, Ramachandra YL, Rai SP, Investigation of in vitro, in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Eugenia jambolana Lam. stem bark. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2011;4(11):4167-4171.
http://eprints.manipal.edu/139858/
9. Baliga MS, Anticancer, chemopreventive and radioprotective potential of Black Plum (Eugenia Jambolana Lam.). Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 2011; 12: 3-15.
http://www.apocpcontrol.net/paper_file/issue_abs/Volume12_No1/3-15%20b%2012.10%20Manjeshwar%20Shrinath%20Baliga.pdf
10. Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, Evaluation of the radioprotective effect of the leaf extract of Syzygium cumini (Jamun) in mice exposed to a lethal dose of γ-irradiation. Nahrung/Food. 2003;47(3):181 – 185.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/food.200390042
11. Anand H et al, Cytoprotective effects of fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana on H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat Leydig cells in vitro. Andrologia. 2013;45(3):145-157.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0272.2012.01323.x
12. Banerjee A, Dasgupta N, De B, In vitro study of antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini fruit. Food Chemistry. 2005;90(4):727–733.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.04.033
13. Benherlal PS, Arumughan C, Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant studies on Syzygium cumini fruit. J Sci Food Agric. 2007;87(14):2560-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2957
14. Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, The evaluation of Nitric Oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: A preliminary study. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2004; 7(3): 343- 348.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2004.7.343
15. Nair LK, Begum M, Geetha S, In vitro-Antioxidant activity of the seed and leaf extracts of syzygium cumini. IOSR Journal Of Environmental Science, Toxicology And Food Technology. 2013;7(1):54-62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.9790/2402-0715462
16. Ruan ZP, Zhang LL, Lin YM, Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaves. Molecules. 2008; 13: 2545-2556.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules13102545
17. Sultana B, Anwar F, Przybylski R, Antioxidant activity of phenolic components present in barks of Azadirachta indica, Terminalia arjuna, Acacia nilotica, and Eugenia jambolana Lam. trees. Food Chemistry 2007;104(3): 1106–1114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.019
18. Tong WY et al, Inhibiting enzymatic starch digestion by hydrolyzable tannins isolated from Eugenia jambolana. LWT - Food Science and Technology 2014;59(1):389–395.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.04.007
19. Zhang LL, Lin YM, Antioxidant tannins from Syzygium cumini fruit. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2009;8 (10):2301-2309.
http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/60578
20. Hsu HY, Yang JJ, Lin CC, Effects of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid on inhibiting tumor growth and enhancing the recovery of hematopoietic system postirradiation in mice. Cancer Lett. 1997;111(1-2):7-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3835(96)04481-3
21. Gandhi NM, Nair CK, Protection of DNA and membrane from gamma radiation induced damage by gallic acid. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;278(1-2):111-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-005-6940-1
22. Nemavarkar P, Chourasia BK, Pasupathy K, Evaluation of radioprotective action of compounds using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2004;23(2):145-51.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15163293
23. Bhosle SM, Huilgol NG, Mishra KP, Enhancement of radiation-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in tumor cells by ellagic acid. Clin Chim Acta. 2005;359(1-2):89-100.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cccn.2005.03.037
24. Devipriya N et al, Quercetin ameliorates gamma radiation-induced DNA damage and biochemical changes in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mutat Res. 2008;654(1):1-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2008.03.003
25. Benkovic V et al, Radioprotective effects of propolis and quercetin in gamma-irradiated mice evaluated by the alkaline comet assay. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(10):851-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2008.02.010
26. Benkovic V et al, Radioprotective effects of quercetin and ethanolic extract of propolis in gamma-irradiated mice. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2009 ;60(2):129-38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/10004-1254-60-2009-1908
27. Benkovic V et al, Evaluation of radioprotective effects of propolis and quercetin on human white blood cells in vitro. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31(9):1778-85.
http://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.31.1778