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Nigella sativa

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General Features                  Clinical Study                  Chemical Intervention                 Pharmacological Aspects                 
Radiobiological Aspects                  Biological Models                  Biological Target                  Toxicity                 


BIOLOGICAL TARGET

Action of Extract: Action on cell cycle:
Target: Nucleic Acid
N. sativa ethanolic seed extract inhibited radiation-induced DNA damage in mice in vivo and in vitro[1]
proteins:
treatment of gamma-irradiated rats with Thymoquinone decreased T cell exhaustion and apoptosis by modulating the expression of Bcl-2, PD-1, Bax, and caspase-3.[2]
enzyme activity of Nitric oxide synthase in brain tissue of the rats treated with N. sativa oil or thymoquinone were found to be lower[3]
N. sativa oil normalized levels of plasma glutathione peroxidase, catalase and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities in irradiated rats[4]
ethanolic seed extract is suggested to prevent cellular radio-oxidative damage which is the net result of either prevention in their generation or their enhanced detoxicification.[1]
Administration of N. sativa oil to the rats, followed by WBI, resulted in significant increase in the mean plasma values of total protein and globulin concentrations[4]
Administration of N. sativa oil restored levels of Paraoxonase, Arylesterase in liver of a irradiated rats[5],[6]
N. sativa oil prevented radiation-induced increase in Xanthine oxidase activity in rat lens[7]
N. sativa methanol seed extract restored radiation-induced altered levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase in rat intestine homogenate[8],in mice[9]
N. sativa oil decreased radiation-induced increase in nitric oxide synthase activity in rats[10]
Lipids:
N. sativa oil pre-treatment reduced lipid peroxidation in irradiated rat[4],[11],[2],[8],[1],[9], in lenses of rats[7]
thymoquinone restored the radiation-inducued increased levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C, MDA, TNF-a and IL-6 levels and decreased HDL-C levels in rats[2]
N. sativa fixed oil, and thymoquinone inhibited non-enzymatic peroxidation in ox brain phospholipid liposomes[12]
sugars:
Mechanism: After receiveing 2 electrons from 2 superoxide anion radicals and 2 protons, thymoquinone is converted to THQ[13]
thymoquinone neutralizes nitric oxide indirectly[13]
N. sativa oil decreased radiation-induced nitric oxide and peroxynitrite levels in irradited rat lens[10], and radiation-induced increased LOOH levels in rat[6]
N. sativa methanolic seed extract inhibited the generation of DPPH radical, ABTS.+ radical, hydroxyl (OH.) and superoxide (O2•-) radical in a concentration dependent manner[14]
The molecular mechanisms that may have played important role in radioprotection by N. sativa methanolic seed extract include inhibition of radiation-induced transactivation of NF-κB, suppression of radiation-induced elevation in COX-II expression[15], inhibition of the radiation-induced decline in GST mRNA and Nfr2/HO gene[16]. The radioprotective action of N. sativa methanolic seed extract may be mediated by the presence of various phytochemicals including thymoquinone nigellidine,p-cymene (rho) , carvacrol, 4-terpineol, t-anethole (tau) and the sesquiterpene longifolene[14],[8]
antioxidant properties and free radical scavenging activities are suggested to attributed to radioprotective action[7],[14],[8],[9],[10]
Pre-administration of N. sativa oil to the irradiated rats, increased levels of ascorbic acid, retinol, β-carotene, GSH and ceruloplamin (nonenzymatic antioxidant markers) and reduced levels of Malondialdehyde, nitrate, nitrite (oxidative stress markers)[11]
Levels of NO. and ONOO- were lowered in irradiated rat brain tissue by N. sativa oil or thymoquinone, which are suggested to have acted by inhibiting free radical generation or scavenging ROS/RNS.[3]
essential oil and oleoresins of black cumin exhibited antioxidant activity and scavenged DPPH radical in vitro[17]
thymoquinone, a natural main constituent of the volatile oil of Nigella saliva seeds is shown be radioprotective by enhancing cellular immunity and reducing inflammatory conditions[2]
thymoquinone, a natural main constituent of the volatile oil of Nigella saliva seeds has shown to have potent ability to scavenge superoxide anion radical[18]
thymoquinone and carvacrol, tanethole and 4-terpineol from the volatile oil of Nigella saliva seeds demonstrated DPPH radical and .OH radical scavenging activity[19]
REFERENCES
1. Rastogi L et l, Protection against radiation-induced oxidative damage by an ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa L. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2010;86(9):719–731.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09553002.2010.484480
2. Guida MS et al, Thymoquinone rescues T Lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis and exhaustion by modulating pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and PD-1, Bax, and Bcl-2 signaling. Cell Physiol Biochem 2016;38:786-800.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/00044303
3. Ahlatci A et al, Radiation-modifying abilities of Nigella sativa and Thymoquinone on radiation-induced nitrosative stress in the brain tissue. Phytomedicine 2014;21:740–744.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2013.10.023
4. Assayed ME, Radioprotective effects of black seed (Nigella sativa) oil against hemopoietic damage and immunosuppression in gamma-irradiated rats. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 2010; 32(2): 284–296
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08923970903307552
5. Cikman O et al, Radioprotective effects of Nigella sativa oil against oxidative stress in liver tissue of rats exposed to total head irradiation. Journal of Investigative Surgery 2014; 27: 262–266.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08941939.2014.898811
6. Üstün K et al, Radio-protective effects of Nigella sativa oil on oxidative stress in tongue tissue of rat. Oral Diseases 2014; 20(1):109–113.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.12082
7. Demir E et al, The effects of Nigella sativa oil, thymoquinone, propolis, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester on radiation-induced cataract. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2015 Apr 10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00508-015-0736-4
8. Pandey N et al, Effect of methanolic fraction of the seeds of Nigella sativa Linn on radiation induced GI damage in rats. Nutr Food Technol. 2015; 1(1):1-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.16966/2470-6086.102
9. Velho-Pereira R et al, Radioprotection by macerated extract of Nigella sativa in normal tissues of fibrosarcoma bearing mice. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2012; 74(5): 403–414.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0250474X. 108415
10. Taysi S et al, The radioprotective effect of Nigella sativa on nitrosative stress in lens tissue in radiation-induced cataract in rat. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2014; Early Online: 1–6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15569527.2014.910802
11. Cemek M et al, In vivo radioprotective effects of Nigella sativa L oil and reduced glutathione against irradiation-induced oxidative injury and number of peripheral blood lymphocytes in rats. Photochemistry and Photobiology 2006; 82: 1691-1696.
http://dx.doi.org/10.156212006-06-15-RA-924
12. Houghton PJ et al, Fixed oil of Nigella sativa and derived thymoquinone inhibit eicosanoid generation in leukocytes and membrane lipid peroxidation. Planta Med. 1995;61(1):336.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s2006957994
13. Chapter 3: Irradiation, Radioprotection and Nigella sativa, by Cemek M et al ; In : Herbal Radiomodulators: Applications in Medicine, Homeland Defence and Space, by Arora R, CAB International, 2008, Page no. 47.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=lLdRCuTFdj0C&pg=PA47
14. Jagetia GC, Ravikiran PB, Radioprotective potential of Nigella Sativa extract in Swiss Albino Mice exposed to whole Body γ-radiation. Altern Integr Med 2014; 3(4):1-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2327-5162.1000168
15. Kundu JK et al, Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol esterinduced activation of NFκB and expression of COX2, and induces expression of cytoprotective enzymes in mouse skin in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;438(4):721-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.07.110
16. Ramazan U et al, Modulation of Nrf2/HO-1 by thymoquinone during Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Turk Neph Dial Transpl 2013; 22 (2): 182-187.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5262/tndt.2013.1002.09
17. Singh S et al, Composition, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil and oleoresins obtained from black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L.). BioMed Research International Volume 2014, Article ID 918209, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/918209
18. Badary OA et al, Thymoquinone is a potent superoxide anion scavenger. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2003;26(2):87-98.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/DCT120020404
19. Burits M, Bucar F, Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil. Phytother Res. 2000;14(5):323-8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10925395